Gang Activity in Specific Populations

Female Gang Involvement in a Midwestern City: Correlates, Nature and Meanings
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), December 1999. A comparative survey conducted in Columbus, Ohio of young girls who are gang members and those who are not. Correlates gang involvement among girls, the life contexts shaping their participation, the meanings they attribute to it, and the structures and activities of the gangs and the girls' roles in them. (NCJ 179979)

Female Gangs: A Focus on Research
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2001. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The article summarizes past and present research into female gangs and tracks their rise in number and the increased public recognition of female gang involvement as a significant social problem. (NCJ 186159)

Gangs in Middle America: Are They a Threat?
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Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), December 2001. This article in the FBI's Law Enforcement Bulletin examines the history of gangs in the Midwest and their threat. The article also covers the topic of gang migration.

Gangs in Rural America, Final Report
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), September 2001. Using the National Youth Gang Surveys (NYGS), this study has two components. First, the NYGS data were merged with other county level data to create a unique data set for considering the relationship between reports of gang presence and county level social, economic, and demographic characteristics. Second, the study used interviews with agencies in rural counties that reported gang presence, the nature of gang problems, and effective responses to rural gangs. (NCJ 190228)

Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 2001. This piece describes the nature of modern youth gangs, in particular, hybrid gangs which are characterized by mixed racial and ethnic participation within a single gang. (NCJ 189916)

Modern-Day Youth Gangs
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2002. The article compares the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems.

Vietnamese Youth Gang Involvement
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), February 2000. This bulletin discusses the results of a study by the city of Westminster in Orange County, California that examined the factors related to gang involvement by Vietnamese American youth. (NCJ 181085)

Youth Gangs in Indian Country
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2004. This report presents data regarding the presence and effect of youth gang activity in Indian country and an overview of programmatic responses to the problem. (NCJ 202714)

Youth Gangs in Rural America
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2004. Even though gangs are seen, as shown through the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS), to still be heavily concentrated in medium and large cities, gang problems are occurring in communities of all sizes and locations. Adapted from the National Institute of Justice final report entitled, "Gangs in Rural America," this study merged NYGS data with economic, demographic, and other data concerning the same geographic areas, so the factors associated with the presence of rural youth gangs could be analyzed. The data was divided the nonmetropolitan jurisdictions into three categories: persistent gang problems (23 percent); persistent absence of gangs (57 percent); and transitory or temporary gang problems (20 percent). Of the nonmetropolitan agencies reporting gangs in 1997, the more rural the jurisdiction, the less likely they were to continue to report gangs in 2000. The finding that only 41 percent of the agencies reporting a gang in 1997 reported the presence of a gang in 2000 is substantially lower than would be expected if gangs were persistent in rural areas. Findings suggest that predictors of gang activity in a rural area include: (1) areas experiencing economic growth (2) the percentage of the county’s population that lived in an urban area; and (3) the percentage of county residents who worked outside of their home county. The differences between urban and rural gangs strongly suggest that the policies and practices aimed at suppressing urban gangs may not be the best approaches in nonurban/rural areas.

Youth Gangs in Schools
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), August 2000. This bulletin analyzes findings from the School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey. Describes characteristics of gangs in schools and discusses contributory factors to gang prevalence in schools. Also reviews the impact on victimization of gang presence in schools. (NCJ 183015)