Alphabetical Index

Title Funding Organization Subject PDF TXT HTML Abstract
2008 National Chemical Control Symposium: A Focus on Tracking Precursor Chemicals (DVD) COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2009. This multi-DVD set includes video of all the conference sessions. A primary focus was on electronic pseudoephedrine product tracking systems. Session topics included: Technical standards for electronic tracking systems and IT needs for interoperability with other criminal justice systems; The role of the retail community and maintaining positive working relationships between law enforcement and retailers; Legislative options for authorizing electronic tracking systems; Privacy issues and how to properly address them; etc.
311 for Non-Emergencies: Helping Communities Once Call at a Time, COPS Fact Sheet COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), November 2007. This Fact Sheet provides information on the COPS Office funding history of 311 non-emergency call systems and the link between 311 and community policing.
311 Proves a Valuable Supplement to 911 Service Best Practices in Emergency Services Magazine Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF     Best Practices in Emergency Services Magazine, September 2005. This article reports that across the U.S. “cities that have adopted 311 have said that the system has freed up call-swamped 911 centers, sharpened first response services and resulted in many other unforeseen benefits.” (p.97). Three-one-one sites in Chicago, Illinois and New York City, New York are featured as well as several COPS-funded 311 sites of Austin, Texas; Baltimore, Maryland; Houston, Texas; and Orange County, Florida. Written by Penny Colston, this article appears in Best Practices in Emergency Services, a monthly newsletter geared towards emergency services such as EMS, fire and rescue, hazardous materials, and disaster management.
A Framework for Justice Information Sharing: Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) OJP Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF     Office of Justice Programs (OJP), September 2004. This report describes the recommendations of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Advisory Committee (GAC) for the design and development of an information system architecture that will support both the operational requirements of justice agencies and the requirements for a national system for information sharing among the justice community.
A Policy Maker Blueprint for Transitioning to the Next Generation 9-1-1 System NENA Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems     HTML National Emergency Number Association (NENA), September 2008. Contains Issues and Recommendations for State and Federal Policy Makers to Enable NG-911. To navigate to this resource, please follow this path: Home » Programs » NG Partner Program » NG9-1-1 Transition Policy Maker Blueprint (bulleted list)
Analyzing Crime Displacement and Diffusion COPS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF   HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2009. Analyzing Crime Displacement and Diffusion provides an introduction to crime displacement and diffusion, discusses the nature of displacement and its varieties and then describes ways to manage displaced crime to ensure your project’s success. It also describes methods for measuring and analyzing displacement that can be used to determine the overall effectiveness of problem-oriented policing projects.
Applying Security Practices to Justice Information Sharing OJP Data Sharing / Information Systems     HTML Office of Justice Programs (OJP), n.d. This document contains background information, overviews of best practices, and guidelines for secure information sharing.
Applying Wireless Security Practices to Justice Information Sharing BJA Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF     Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), April 2006. This document is a companion resource to Applying Security Practices to Justice Information Sharing (document) or (Applying Security Practices), focusing specifically on wireless security practices.
Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools NCJRS Surveillance Video / In-Car Cameras PDF     National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), September 1999. This document provides basic guidelines on what, if any, security technologies should be considered when developing safe school strategies. It is intended to help schools, in concert with their law enforcement partners, analyze their vulnerability to violence, theft and vandalism, and suggest possible technologies to effectively address those problems. (NCJ 178265)
Bringing the Dispatcher to the Scene With Panoramic Imaging and Remote Video Transmission, Final Report NIJ Surveillance Video / In-Car Cameras PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2001. This report describes the activities and outcomes of a project initiated to develop a panoramic imager -- consisting of a 360-degree mirror in a clear housing with a color camera aimed at the mirror --that can improve the current video camera systems used in patrol cars, most of which only record the activity in front of the vehicle. (NCJ 190132)
Building a 311 System for Non-Emergency Calls: A Case Study of the Austin Police Department COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2003. This case study documents the 311-system implementation process of Austin Police Department. This study describes the challenges the department encountered and strategies it used to set up the 311 system, and provides lessons learned for other agencies wishing to develop similar systems.
Building a 311 System for Non-Emergency Calls: A Process and Impact Evaluation COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2003. This case study documents the 311 system implementation process of Austin Police Department. The Austin Police Department was awarded funding under the 311 Technical Assistance for Start-Ups Program (FY’00) to implement a 311 system and document the implementation process. This case study describes the challenges the department encountered and strategies it used to set up the 311 system, and provides lessons learned for other agencies wishing to develop similar systems.
Building a 311 System: A Case Study of the City of Minneapolis COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2008. This case study examines the process and impact of building a 311 non-emergency call system within the City of Minneapolis. Topics include project planning, staffing and training, technology considerations, budgetary issues, call tracking and routing processes, and 311 facility build-out. Also discussed is the 311 system’s impact on several areas affecting police and the citizens of Minneapolis, including 911 call volume, police operations, municipal service delivery systems, quality of life enhancements, community initiatives, and crisis management planning, including its use during the August 2007 Minneapolis I-35W bridge collapse.
Building a 311 System: A Case Study of the Orange County, Florida, Government Service Center COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), May 2007. Law enforcement executives and agencies and public safety communications organizations interested in learning about what is involved when establishing a multijurisdictional, nonemergency 311 telephone system will find Building a 311 System informative. This Internet-only publication documents the experiences of Orange County, Florida, in organizing and establishing such a system. Topics discussed in this case study include the political, financial, and technological challenges involved in intergovernmental partnerships and interagency coordination, along with developing call routing and tracking mechanisms, staffing a 311 call center, and the role that the Orange County 311 system plays in hurricane emergency preparedness.
Building Exchange Content Using the Global Justice XML Data Model: A User Guide for Practitioners and Developers BJA / OJP Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF     Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), June 2005. This users guide provides clear and concise guidance for a novice user to an experienced technology veteran. This project was developed through a partnership of local, state and federal practitioners and is an important step in creating a mechanism where accurate and timely information can be shared among the participants.
Call 311: Connecting Citizens to Local Government ICMA Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF     International City/County Management Association (ICMA), 2008. Local governments across the country want to respond efficiently and effectively when their citizens need assistance. This report is intended to serve as a reference manual for local governments considering the implementation of a centralized customer service system. Included in the report are recommendations based on findings from both the national survey and the case studies. These recommendations represent what ICMA researchers and study advisors consider critical management practices for obtaining optimum results from a centralized system.
Call Management and Community Policing COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2003. A Guidebook for Law Enforcement focuses on police call management strategies and how they affect community policing today. This guidebook looks at the direct relationship between community policing and managing calls for service effectively, and includes practical examples from police departments around the country.
Calling 311: Guidelines for Policymakers COPS / NIJ Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. This publication examines issues on 311 system implementation and focuses on key considerations for police managers and public policymakers. Issues examined include the impact of 311 on 911 calls, the link between 311 and community policing, technology considerations, and citizen education.
Can We Talk? Public Safety and the Interoperability Challenge NIJ Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), April 2000. This article reports on the National Institute of Justice's efforts to support agency-to-agency radio communication solutions. This includes the integration of 12 agencies in San Diego County (CA) and the creation of Advanced Generation of Interoperability for Law Enforcement (AGILE) in 1998. AGILE has four main components: supporting research and development; testing, evaluating, and piloting technologies; developing standards; and educating and reaching out to end users and policymakers. The article concludes with a discussion of the future of interoperability.
CCTV: Constant Cameras Track Violators NIJ Surveillance Video / In-Car Cameras PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2003. This NIJ Journal article discusses the benefits and disadvantages (privacy concerns) of using closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras to monitor public spaces in the United Kingdom. A study by the Home Office Police Research Group examined the effectiveness of CCTV systems in three English town centers. Among the findings was that analysis of crime data showed that the presence of CCTV can have a deterrent effect on a variety of offenses, especially property offenses; however, such reductions in crime can disappear as publicity about and awareness of the cameras fade.
Crime Analysis and Crime Mapping Information Clearinghouse, 8th Edition COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, October 2003. This COPS Office/Police Foundation document provides a comprehensive list of valuable crime analysis and mapping resources. It includes bibliographic and Internet resources that may be helpful to practitioners and researchers interested in the disciplines of crime analysis and crime mapping.
Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps COPS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2005. This new manual, written by two leading crime prevention experts, is intended for crime analysts and other police officials working on problem oriented policing projects. It covers the basics of problem-oriented policing and shows how many new concepts developed to analyze crime patterns can sharpen understanding of crime and disorder problems. It also shows how the 25 techniques of situational crime prevention can greatly expand the problem-solving capacity of police. Finally, it gives guidance on ways to assess the effectiveness of action taken, including ways of testing for displacement.
Crime Analysis in America COPS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), January 2003. This is the final report of a COPS funded study conducted by the University of South Alabama concerning the nation's law enforcement crime analysis units. Researchers conducted national telephone interviews, mail surveys, and site visits in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the state of crime analysis in the United States. The researchers also provide recommendations on ways that local law enforcement agencies can enhance and develop their own crime analysis capabilities.
Crime Analysis in America: Findings and Recommendations COPS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2003. While crime analysts have traditionally emphasized tactical analysis activities like identifying offenders, community policing encourages more focus on strategic and problem analysis functions. This includes identifying the underlying conditions that give rise to community problems, developing responses to them that are linked to these analyses, assessing the effectiveness of responses, and developing long-term organizational operational plans. This guide is a product of the findings of a recent study conducted by the University of South Alabama documenting the state of crime analysis in the nation's law enforcement agencies. These findings and recommendations are intended to inform police managers of the structural issues to address when considering a crime analysis function within a community policing context. They are also intended to expose the current limitations of crime analysis and the policies that those findings imply.
Crime Mapping and Analysis by Community Organizations in Hartford, Connecticut NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT   National Institute of Justice (NIJ), March 2001. This document is an assessment of how community organizations in Hartford, Connecticut, used the Neighborhood Problem Solving (NPS) system, a computer based mapping and crime analysis technology. The NPS system allows its users to create maps and other reports showing crime rates. (NCJ 185333)
Crime Mapping Principal and Practice NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis     HTML National Institute of Justice (NIJ), December 1999. This guide introduces the science of crime mapping to police officers, crime analysts, and other people interested in visualizing crime data through the medium of maps.
Crime Prevention Research Review No. 2: Police Enforcement Strategies to Prevent Crime in Hot Spot Areas COPS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2008. The second publication in the Crime Prevention Research Review series, this report summarizes the findings from all rigorous academic studies evaluating police enforcement strategies in hot spot areas. It finds that focusing efforts on places with high crime and calls for service can effectively be used to prevent crime in those locations. Reduced calls for service and other reductions in crime and disorder measures were noted in most studies. Displacement of crime due to the enforcement efforts was not prevalent in those studies that measured displacement.
Criminal Intelligence Sharing COPS / IACP Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), August 2002. After September 11, COPS funded the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) to convene the Criminal Intelligence Summit. Participants included federal, state, and local law enforcement executives. The purpose of the summit was to discuss the capacities and barriers of intelligence sharing, standards and guidelines, technology, training, and civil rights. The recommendations from the summit were published in a document entitled "Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A National Plan ffor Intelligence-Led Policing at the Local, State, and Federal Levels: Recommendations from the IACP Intelligence Summit."
Demonstrating the Analytical Utility of GIS for Police Operations: A Final Report NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2001. This report investigates three modules of crime mapping. The first is analyzing crime intensity over different geographic locations, the second is analyzing hazardous police work areas, and the third is mapping special events such as natural disasters.
Enhancing the Problem-Solving Capacity of Crime Analysis Units COPS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2008. This guide in the Problem-Solving Tools Series of the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police, is intended for police managers who wish to ensure that their crime analysts are properly inducted into the police environment and that their analytical work is fully integrated into departmental operations. The guide is organized around nine fundamental concerns that must be addressed when developing a problem-solving capacity within a crime analysis unit. Following each of the nine concerns, posed as questions, the author offers several recommendations for consideration when developing a group of skilled problem-solving crime analysts.
Frequently Asked Questions of Crime Analysis and Mapping COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, November 2001. These frequently asked questions, developed by COPS and the Police Foundation, address several common themes identified by crime analysis and mapping professionals. The answers include links to other crime analysis and mapping resources, such as publications and web pages that provide useful and comprehensive information about particular topics.
Fusion Center Guidelines DHS / DOJ Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF     U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), n.d. Guidelines for Establishing and Operating Fusion Centers at the Local, State, and Federal Levels
Fusion Centers and Intelligence Sharing OJP Data Sharing / Information Systems     HTML Office of Justice Programs (OJP), n.d. The ultimate goal of a fusion center is to provide a mechanism where law enforcement, public safety, and private partners can come together with a common purpose and improve the ability to safeguard our homeland and prevent criminal activity. A police officer, fireman, or building inspector should not have to search for bits of information. They should know to call one particular place-the jurisdiction's fusion center. Documents supporting Fusion Centers may be updated. Readers are encouraged to visit this site for updated and new documents.
Geocoding in Law Enforcement, Final Report COPS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2000. Geocoding, one of the initial steps in conducting an analysis based on crime mapping, is the process of bringing tabular and geographic data together through a common geographic unit of analysis. This COPS Office and Police Foundation guide describes the five basic steps in the geocoding process.
Geography and Public Safety Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2008 COPS / NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2008. Geography and Public Safety, a quarterly newsletter from the COPS Office and the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), examines four substantive areas. "Practice" examines practices related to crime mapping and problem analysis; "Policy" describes policy related to the use of mapping to better understand crime; "Technical Tips" aids practioners in completing specific spatial analysis tasks. "News Briefs" and a list of upcoming geography events, such as conferences and training opportunities, complete the newsletter. This newsletter will be useful for police practitioners at all levels who are interested in geography and its relationship to crime, as well as for researchers, policy makers, and others interested in understanding the impact of geography on public safety.
Geography and Public Safety Volume 1, Issue 2, July 2008 COPS / NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2008. Abstract: Issue 2 of the Geography and Public Safety Newsletter, a quarterly newsletter produced by the COPS Office and the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), discusses traffic safety and law enforcement. In this issue, “Creating a Safer Houston through Crash Mapping” highlights the benefits of mapping crash data; the DWI Resource Center illustrates mapping programs used to target alcohol-impaired driving; the Technical Tips section examines the creation of base maps and layer files for cartographic consistency. This newsletter will be useful for police practitioners at all levels who are interested in geography and its relationship to crime, as well as for researchers, policy makers, and others interested in understanding the impact of geography on public safety.
Geography and Public Safety Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2008 COPS / NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), September 2008. Issue III of Geography and Public Safety examines how the nationwide home foreclosure crisis has affected crime, police practice, and public policy. Articles show that geographic information systems can assess how foreclosures influence crime trends and improve city cleanup of graffiti and blight. Additionally, the issue describes the tenets of the broken windows policing theory, and how this theory explains why police and public planners must react quickly, before crime has a chance to escalate.
Geography and Public Safety, Volume 1, Issue 4, January 2009 COPS / NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), January 2009. Issue IV of the Geography and Public Safety Bulletin focuses on how police can use geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical analysis to create police districts that balance officer workloads, and how they can best allocate resources. Articles focus on how two communities redrew district boundaries, and highlight techniques and technologies that can help police respond faster and more effectively to emergency situations. The issue highlights successful redistricting projects in the news, and discusses two of the MAPS program’s internal research projects.
Geography and Public Safety Volume 2, Issue 1, May 2009 COPS / NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), June 2009. Volume 2, Issue 1 — Sex Offender Residency Restrictions This issue focuses on how mapping and spatial analysis can help jurisdictions understand the effects of restrictions on where sex offenders are allowed to live. Specifically, it discusses how residency restrictions affect recidivism — whether they hamper offenders’ reentry process and make it less likely that they will get treatment and services. Articles include a discussion of whether residency restrictions are a good idea, a study of residency restrictions in Minnesota, a report on the use of GPS monitoring for sex offenders in Florida, and a description of a spatial analysis technique for tracking sex offenders piloted by California Department of Corrections data.
Geography and Public Safety Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2009 COPS / NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF   HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), January 2010. In this second issue of Geography and Public Safety, Volume 2, neighborhoods and the importance of geographic composition is discussed. This issue looks at topics, definitions, and technologies that demonstrate that neighborhoods matter. Articles bring the abstract idea of a neighborhood into a concrete set of ideas for practice. The articles by Marc Buslik, Phil Canter, and Mark Warren highlight how multiple delineations of neighborhood boundaries make it more difficult for the police to serve the public adequately. John Markovic discusses why neighborhoods matter when implementing community policing. Lastly, Jim Zepp highlights how residents of various neighborhoods participated in a government contest to create web sites that helped citizens of Washington, D.C., better communicate information about their neighborhoods to others.
GJXDM Law Enforcement Information Exchange Package Workshop Report COPS / SEARCH Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), SEARCH, March 2005. In continuing its support of improving law enforcement information sharing, the COPS Office funded SEARCH, Inc. to hold a series of workshops and develop Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM) Information Exchange Packages (IEPs) for Law Enforcement. The publication of law enforcement IEPs provides tangible models and GJXDM content that can be used by local law enforcement agencies pursuing data interoperability and can support information sharing about crimes and offenders throughout the U.S. The report provides information on the workshops, which led to the development of these IEPs that can help local law enforcement agencies by providing baseline models for GJXDM conformant information exchange.
Global Justice XML Data Model BJA / OJP Data Sharing / Information Systems     HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), n.d. The Global Justice XML Data Model (Global JXDM) is intended to be a data reference model for the exchange of information within the justice and public safety communities. This guide outlines the updates to the newest version of the model and provides definitions and guidelines regarding GJXML.
Global Products and Publications BJA Data Sharing / Information Systems     HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), n.d. The Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) serves as a Federal Advisory Committee (FAC) and advises the U.S. Attorney General on justice information sharing and integration initiatives. Global was created to support the broad scale exchange of pertinent justice and public safety information. It promotes standards-based electronic information exchange to provide the justice community with timely, accurate, complete, and accessible information in a secure and trusted environment. Documents supporting the work of Global may be updated. Readers are encouraged to visit this site for updated and new documents.
Guidelines to Implement and Evaluate Crime Analysis and Mapping COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, October 2000. This document serves as a guide for the processes of implementing and evaluating crime analysis and mapping. It is designed by the COPS Office/Police Foundation for use by law enforcement agencies that do not currently have the function in place as well as those that are looking to reevaluate and restructure their current crime analysis and mapping functions.
Identifying and Measuring the Effects of Information Technologies on Law Enforcement Agencies COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2008. This guide by the Institute for Law and Justice provides information that will help police departments measure the effects of information technologies to support community policing activities. The guide is based on the results of an assessment of the COPS Office’s 2002 Making Officer Redeployment Effective (MORE) grantees; however, the results apply to any agency that is considering or has recently made a technology purchase. The guide is relevant to departments of all sizes and covers a variety of applications—automated field reporting systems, computer aided dispatch, records management systems, and others. The guide focuses on the three E’s–efficiency, effectiveness, and enabling–which identify the different ways the technology may affect agencies. The intent is to provide practical measures based on these three E’s for how information technologies contribute to achieving department goals and can be used to examine the merits of such expenditures.
Implementing Community Policing: Lessons from 12 Agencies COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF   HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), December 2009. Over time, the community policing reform movement has come to mean different things to different people. In fact, the community policing movement has wrestled with tension between philosophical ambiguity and implementation specificity for years. So what is community policing? What does it mean when a police agency says that it practices community policing? This report explores these questions by examining the implementation of community policing in 12 police agencies across the nation. It describes and analyzes the experiences of local law enforcement agencies and lessons learned as they work to define, make sense of, and implement community policing, synthesizing what was learned in topic-specific chapters. While there is no one-size fits-all approach to implementing community policing or any other innovation, this report offers police officials at all levels ideas that can be used in their own organizations to help implement effective community policing throughout the United States.
Improving Street Lighting to Reduce Crime in Residential Areas COPS Surveillance Video / In-Car Cameras PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), March 2009. This guide reviews the use of street lighting to help reduce crime in residential areas, discusses the factors to examine when considering upgrading or improving street lighting, and recommends steps to take when implementing a street lighting improvement plan. It explains why improved street lighting can help reduce fear of crime, summarizes the literature on the effectiveness of better lighting, and suggests measures that can be used to assess the effectiveness of lighting solutions that have been implemented.
Information Systems Integration BJA Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF     Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), 2004. This compilation of four publications on information integration provides practical information and resources for practitioners undertaking integrated justice initiatives.
Information Systems Technology Enhancement Project (ISTEP) COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2001. The Information Systems Technology Enhancement Project (ISTEP) document examines the uses of information technology and its application to community policing in America. It documents the information technology planning and acquisition processes, while contrasting the various applications of the technology to community policing in five police organizations.
Information Systems Technology Enhancement Project: ISTEP Phase II Case Studies COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), November 2003. This series of case studies continues the work started in the original Information Systems Technology Enhancement Project. Each case study examines the uses of information technology and its application to community policing in America. It documents the information technology planning and acquisition processes, while contrasting the various applications of the technology to community policing in four police organizations.
Integrated Intelligence and Crime Analysis: Enhanced Information Management for Law Enforcement Leaders COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, July 2009. This (second edition) guide, developed by the Police Foundation with support from the COPS Office, examines the disconnect between crime analysis and intelligence analysis found in many of the nation’s law enforcement agencies. Smart deployment of resources at the tactical, operational and strategic level requires analysis of both crime data and criminal intelligence information, preferably in an integrated fashion. This book looks at ways in which departments can encourage information sharing between crime analysts and the special units that typically manage criminal intelligence for the purpose of presenting an analysis of all known information to aid in problem-solving efforts.
Integrating Community Policing and Computer Mapping COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, February 2000. This document details a research project undertaken by the Police Foundation in an effort to identify the needs of the law enforcement field regarding crime mapping and analysis technologies. This COPS Office/Police Foundation document should be of interest to those seeking a better understanding of the state and needs of law enforcement agencies with respect to crime analysis and mapping.
Interoperability Continuum Brochure DHS Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), n.d. This brochure outlines the core elements of interoperability according to the stated needs and challenges of the public safety community. It is intended as a tool to aid public safety practitioners and policy makers in their short and long term interoperability efforts. This tool was developed in accordance with DHS Science and Technology Directorate’s Office for Interoperability and Compatibility’s SAFECOM program.
Interoperability: Critical Success Factors (DVD) COPS / SEARCH Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), SEARCH, March 2010. This DVD presents interviews with representatives from five interoperable communications initiatives, focused on exploring the ten critical success factors for achieving interoperability: establishing and exercising governance, securing and managing staffing, defining and controlling scope, defining timelines, controlling budgets, quality assurance measures, risk management plan, procurement and contracting, and integration.
Introduction to the National Information Exchange Model DHS / DOJ Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF   HTML U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), February 2007. The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) is designed to develop, disseminate, and support enterprise-wide information sharing standards and processes across the whole of the justice, public safety, emergency and disaster management, intelligence, and homeland security enterprise at all levels and across all branches of government. The “Introduction to NIEM” is designed to a) provide a general description of how NIEM functions, b) describe the need for and value of NIEM as an enabler of enterprise-wide information sharing, c) provide an overview of key NIEM concepts, and d) identify near-term goals of the NIEM program.
Introductory Guide to Crime Analysis and Mapping COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, November 2001. This guide was developed directly from the "Crime Analysis Mapping and Problem Solving" training course conducted by the Police Foundation. The purpose of this document is to convert the information presented in the training course into a succinct and readable report. It is intended to be both a "starter" guidebook for those just entering the field and a reference manual for current law enforcement analysts.
Issue Brief 1 - Disaster Planning & Recovery: 9-1-1 Center Survivability COPS / SEARCH Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), SEARCH, May 2007. This Issue Brief addresses questions about preparing 9-1-1 centers to sustain a catastrophic event and learning from past experiences. It also offers insight into what one might expect and what needs to be thought about to assist 9-1-1 centers to respond to and recover from major and catastrophic events that affect 9-1-1 operations.
Issue Brief 2 - Communications in the Incident Command System COPS / SEARCH Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), SEARCH, May 2007. This Issue Brief presents background on communications within the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and its Incident Command System. It examines the role of communications within these constructs, as well as in the context of multiagency response to disasters and emergencies. It concludes with operational best practices for effective use of incident communications units.
Issue Brief 3 - Building a Regional Communications Plan COPS / SEARCH Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), SEARCH, May 2007. A key step in integrating technology and operational requirements is building a regional communications plan. This Issue Brief presents the basic steps in building a regional communications plan to improve interoperability and, ultimately, joint response to emergencies.
Issue Brief 4 - Interoperable Communications Training and Exercises COPS / SEARCH Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), SEARCH, May 2007. This Issue Brief addresses the importance of interoperable communications training and exercises, and explores the types of exercises available to the public safety community. Communications is not an independent element of emergency response that can be adequately exercised and evaluated in isolation. It is through integrated exercises that communications can be trained in context, tested, evaluated, and set for continuous improvements.
Issue Brief 5 - Performance Measurement and Interoperability COPS / SEARCH Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), SEARCH, May 2007. This Issue Brief will define interoperable communications, performance measures, the SAFECOM Interoperability Continuum, and provide predictive modeling/statistical measurement solutions. This Issue Brief also presents an overview of how these concepts could be combined to develop a solution for performance measurement and interoperability.
Issue Brief 6 - Project 25: The Quest for Interoperable Radios COPS / SEARCH Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), SEARCH, May 2007. This Issue Brief addresses questions about Project 25, its history, future, and value to public safety managers and technology managers. It also provides background and current information for decision-makers who may be considering use of radios and radio systems built around standards that have arisen from the project.
Knowledge Management in Policing COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2005. This publication explores the potential for Knowledge Management to support innovation in police organizations. Within three chapters, the concept of Knowledge Management in policing is introduced, it's use in a West Coast police department is documented and examined, and a series of guidelines for adopting and implementing Knowledge Management as an organizational development and management strategy is outlined.
Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies, 2nd Ed COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF   HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2009. Since the initial publication of Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies in November 2004, there have been a number of significant changes that have once again had an impact on law enforcement intelligence. While the field is continually evolving, many of the changes have been captured in the second edition of this publication. In fact, 85 percent of the content is new including new chapters on intelligence-led policing; civil rights and privacy in the law enforcement intelligence process; public-private partnerships; fusion centers; suspicious activity; and open source information. This publication takes a comprehensive look at these topics as well federal and national law enforcement intelligence resources, networks, systems, human resources, and anticipated changes to the classification system moving from Sensitive But Unclassified information to Controlled Unclassified Information.
Law Enforcement Responds to Terrorism: Lessons in Prevention and Preparedness COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2002. This COPS Innovations piece highlights how agencies can strengthen their response to terrorism by improving data and intelligence collection and processing, capitalizing on technoligical advances, and communicating with other public safety agencies. It also includes examples of three agencies using COPS-funded 311 systems to address terrorism: Austin Police Department, Texas; Baltimore Police Department, Maryland; and Rochester City Police Department, New York.
Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Communications Interoperability COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems / Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), December 2006. Building a voice or data communications system that allows police, fire, and emergency medical service agencies to communicate with each other within and across jurisdictions is a complex and costly effort. The Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Communications Interoperability is a comprehensive, user-friendly guidebook that provides strategies, best practices, and recommendations for public safety agencies seeking to develop or already engaged in interagency communications projects. It explores current and emerging technologies in voice and data communications, and provides planning tools to help achieve interoperable communication initiatives. It serves as a companion to the COPS-funded "Law Enforcement Tech Guide: How to plan, purchase and manage technology (successfully!), A Guide for Executives, Managers and Technologists".
Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Creating Performance Measures that Work COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems / Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), February 2007. Performance measures can help law enforcement agencies assess and report on the impact of their policing efforts, whether those efforts include adopting a new technology or new community policing initiatives. This guidebook will help agencies develop the necessary performance measures that can be used to improve individual programs and initiatives and can be integrated into broader performance management frameworks. It includes a six-step process for measuring performance, practical real-life examples, templates, recommendations, and checklists. It is a companion to the COPS-funded "Law Enforcement Tech Guide: How to plan, purchase and manage technology (successfully!)."
Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Information Technology Security Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Information Technology Security COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), February 2007. As public safety agencies continue to adopt new and complex information-sharing technologies, securing sensitive and mission-critical information has become an essential part of information technology (IT) planning. This guidebook offers agencies a step-by-step process for developing IT security policies. It includes strategies and best practices, as well as self-assessment and risk-assessment tools that will help agencies systematically identify where IT security risks exist and determine the most effective way to mitigate those risks. It is a companion to the COPS-funded "Law Enforcement Tech Guide: How to plan, purchase and manage technology (successfully!)."
Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Small and Rural Police Agencies COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2007. This practical and user-friendly guidebook is geared to the small and rural police agency, providing strategies, best practices, recommendations, and ideas for successful IT planning and implementation. Agencies with minimal personnel and financing can learn how to implement IT projects from preliminary project planning and project plan creation to technology acquisition, implementation, and maintenance. This guidebook complements the Law Enforcement Tech Guide: How to plan, purchase, and manage technology (successfully!). When used together, they make an impressive toolset for technology implementation.
Law Enforcement Tech Guide: How to plan, purchase, and manage technology (successfully!) COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2002. The Tech Guide presents best practices in strategic IT planning and procurement, reveals pitfalls to avoid, and consolidates and expands upon various sources of relevant information currently available. It reviews best practices to help create a user-friendly product that will provide law enforcement with the tools they need to successfully achieve their IT goals.
Managing Calls to the Police with 911/311 Systems COPS / NIJ Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. This publication is geared toward practitioners planning for 311 systems and focuses on organizational considerations needed by police officers and managers. Issues discussed include using 311 as a call management strategy, the link between 311 and community policing, police dispatch policy, and citizen education.
Managing Citizen Calls to the Police: An Assessment of Non-Emergency Call Systems COPS / NIJ Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF     Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), October 2001. This report reveals the results of a COPS-funded study examining the impact of the non-emergency call systems, including 311. Case studies include Baltimore (MD), Buffalo, (NY); Dallas (TX); and Phoenix (AZ). (NCJ 199060)
Manual of Crime Analysis Map Production COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, November 2001. Through discussion and comprehensive examples, this COPS Office/Police Foundation manual provides guidelines for introductory-level crime analysis mapping. The document begins with a brief examination of the factors necessary to produce an effective map, follows with a discussion of the types of maps and design elements and concludes with five comprehensive examples that illustrate the process of crime analysis mapping. It should be of interest to those looking to produce effective and efficient maps for use in a law enforcement agency.
Mapping for Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Efforts COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, July 2007. The potential impact of prisoner reentry on public safety is undeniable, with more than 600,000 individuals released from state and federal prisons each year. A clear spatial understanding of prisoner reentry is essential to managing ex-offenders in the community. Policing strategies designed to address problems resulting from prisoner reentry can be more effective when they are informed by the mapping of such information as the locations of returning prisoners, reentry services and resources, and parole officers.
Mapping Out Crime NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis     HTML National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 1999. The report recommends crime mapping best practices to benefit communities across the country. It describes specific steps that the federal government can take to support local law enforcement agencies and help communities across the nation make their streets and neighborhoods safer.
Misuse and Abuse of 911 COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2002. This problem-oriented guide for police addresses the urgent problems of misuse and abuse of 911. It leads law enforcement professionals through a series of questions to assist them with analyzing their local problem and provides a summary of responses to the problem of 911 misuse and abuse based on policing principles and new technological development. This guide also suggests evaluative measures for implemented responses.
National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan BJA Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF     Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), February 2005. The article is a formal intelligence sharing initiative that addresses the security and intelligence needs recognized after September 11th.
National Emergency Communications Plan DHS Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), July 2008. The National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) is a strategic plan that sets goals and identifies key national priorities to enhance governance, planning, technology, training and exercises, and disaster communications capabilities. The NECP provides recommendations, including milestones, to help emergency response providers and relevant government officials make measurable improvements in emergency communications over the next three years.
National Information Exchange Model BJA Data Sharing / Information Systems     HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), n.d. The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) is designed to develop, disseminate, and support enterprise-wide information sharing standards and processes across the whole of the justice, public safety, emergency and disaster management, intelligence, and homeland security enterprise at all levels and across all branches of government. Documents supporting the adoption and implementation of NIEM may be udpated. Readers are encouraged to visit this site for updated and new documents.
National Summit on Intelligence: Gathering, Sharing, Analysis, and Use after 9-11 COPS / IACP Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF   HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), July 2009. The National Summit on Intelligence: Gathering, Sharing, Analysis, and Use after 9-11 report finds that in the years since the September 11, 2001, state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies have made great strides in their ability to share intelligence, which is a critical factor in our continuing effort to prevent terrorist attacks. However, the full benefits of intelligence sharing have not yet been realized. These findings, along with recommendations designed to assist law enforcement agencies in overcoming challenges, are contained in this report, which is a result of the COPS/IACP/DHS/PM-ISE Intelligence Summit held in Washington, D.C., in 2007.
National Task Force on Interoperability: Why Can't We Talk? Working Together To Bridge the Communications Gap To Save Lives DHS Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), February 2003. The inability of our public safety officials to readily communicate with one another threatens the public’s safety and often results in unnecessary loss of lives and property. Recognizing that solutions to this national issue can only be achieved through cooperation between all levels of government, 18 national associations representing State and local elected and appointed officials and public safety officials formed a task force to address this issue. This guide is the result of the significant commitment by members of this task force who shared their knowledge, experience, and wisdom perience, and wisdom
P25 Compliance Assessment Program DHS Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), n.d. The P25 Compliance Assessment Program is a partnership of the Department of Homeland Security’s Command, Control and Interoperability Division, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, industry, and the emergency response community. The CAP establishes a process for ensuring that equipment complies with P25 standards and is capable of interoperating across manufacturers.
Policing Smarter Through IT: Learning from the Chicago CLEAR System COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), May 2004. A report on the first findings of a COPS-funded evaluation, conducted by Northwestern University and the University of Illinois at Chicago, of the Chicago Police Department’s Citizen and Law Enforcement Analysis and Reporting (CLEAR) System examines “launch procedures” toward developing an integrated criminal justice information system powered by the CLEAR data warehouse and lessons learned on the design, development, and use of automated systems and police management applications. The Automated Incident Reporting Application (AIRA) will streamline the reporting process, provide accurate, timely information, and attain NIBRS compliance. Other police management applications include the Automated Arrest, System Crime Mapping, Digital Mugshots, eTrack (evidence tracking), Gang and Juvenile Arrest, Personnel Suite, and Automated Rap Sheet.
Policing Smarter Through IT: Lessons in Enterprise Implementation COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2004. A companion piece to Policing Smarter Through IT: Learning from Chicago’s Citizen and Law Enforcement Analysis and Reporting (CLEAR) System, this report provides the reader with practical strategies and cautions to consider when developing an integrated criminal justice information system. Its process review covers issues of funding and vendor management, hardware and operating system decision-making, in-house development vs. outsourcing, physical capacity and infrastructure needs, and what to do about “scope creep” and “information silos.” Information security and privacy, ensuring user buy-in and proper training, use assessment, and other IT issues are discussed using real-life examples. The lessons learned are applicable to criminal justice organizations seeking to expand the boundaries of external and internal information sharing.
Privacy in the Information Age: A Guide for Sharing Crime Maps and Spatial Data NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT   National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2001. This report is designed to provide guidance to law enforcement personnel, researchers, and others who are creating and sharing crime maps. It contains real-life examples and illustrations contributed by various police departments that demonstrate a variety of techniques that promote privacy, crime mapping, and data confidentiality. (NCJ 188739)
Promising Strategies from the Field: A National Overview COPS Call Management / 311 Non-Emergency Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), March 2003. This COPS Innovations piece highlights specific projects and the progress of American law enforcement agencies that received COPS grants and the impact COPS helped make on their communities. Promising Strategies from the Field focuses on ways COPS grantees operationalize and institutionalize community policing strategies to reduce crime and improve communication between law enforcement and the communities in their jurisdictions. It features innovative practices and problem-solving projects by 11 grantees, each of which illustrates effective community policing.
Protecting your Community from Terrorism Volume 4: The Production and Sharing of Intelligence COPS / PERF Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), February 2005. The fourth volume of the Protecting Your Community From Terrorism series discusses the importance of intelligence-led policing and its correlation with problem-oriented policing principles. The report outlines criteria for an effective intelligence function at all levels of government-highlighted by important sidebar contributions from key players in the fields of intelligence and policing. Among the report's key recommendations is a call to more clearly define "intelligence" and what the needs, expectations and responsibilities are of various agencies in the intelligence community and law enforcement profession, as well as a need for a plan to ensure integrated nationwide and regional intelligence sharing mechanisms.
SAFECOM Products and Publications DHS Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing     HTML U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), n.d. SAFECOM is a communications program of the Department of Homeland Security. SAFECOM provides research, development, testing and evaluation, guidance, tools, and templates on interoperable communications-related issues to local, tribal, state, and Federal emergency response agencies. The Office of Emergency Communications (OEC) supports SAFECOM’s development of guidance, tools and templates. The Office for Interoperability and Compatibility (OIC) supports SAFECOM-related research, development, testing, evaluation and standards. OEC is managed by the Directorate for National Protection and Programs. OIC is managed by the Science and Technology Directorate. Documents produced by and for SAFECOM may be updated. Readers are encouraged to visit this site for updated and new documents.
So You Want to Set Up Wi-Fi BJA Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), 2009. "If you have ever thought about or have already set up a wireless access point on your network, there are some basic things you should know. This short guide will discuss many of these topics."
Social Networks:A Community Policing Technique for Disaster Response COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2010. Community Policing Dispatch article discussing social networking as a community policing technique. To access this article, please click on the COPS CP Dispatch icon/link > Click the Year and month of the article > and click on the link for the article.
Spatial Analyses of Crime NIJ Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2000. This article was first published in Measurement and Analysis of Crime and Justice, volume 4. The focus of this article is on methodological issues in spatial statistical analyses of crime data, highlighting practical and accessible methods of exploratory data analysis that should be the starting place of any empirical analyses of the relationship of place to crime.
Standard Functional Specifications for Law Enforcement Computer Aided Dispatch Systems BJA / NIJ / LEITSC Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF   HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Law Enforcement Information Technology Standards Council (LEITSC), November 2005. Designed to inform law enforcement about the basic functional requirements that all CAD systems should have in order to achieve interoperability.
Standard Functional Specifications for Law Enforcement Records Management Systems BJA / NIJ / LEITSC Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF   HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Law Enforcement Information Technology Standards Council (LEITSC), 2005. Designed to inform law enforcement about the basic functional requirements that all RMS systems should have in order to achieve interoperability.
State and Local Law Enforcement Wireless Communications and Interoperability: A Quantitative Analysis NIJ Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), January 1998. This study was designed to ascertain the technological and telecommunications capacities of law enforcement agencies. The extent and nature the agencies practiced interoperability were also measured.
The Digital TV Switch And Its Impact On Public Safety COPS Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), November 2009. Community Policing Dispatch article discussing the digital TV switch, narrowbanding, broadband and implications for public safety. To access this article, please click on the COPS CP Dispatch icon/link > Click the Year and month of the article > and click on the link for the article.
The Impact of Video Evidence on Modern Policing: Research and Best Practices COPS / IACP Surveillance Video / In-Car Cameras PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), December 2004. This report contains the results of a COPS-funded study conducted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) on the use of in-car cameras, focusing on those in use by state police and highway patrol COPS grant recipients in state police and highway patrol agencies. The field evaluations measured the impact of in-car cameras on officer safety, officer performance and police professionalism, agency liability and internal control, training and education, community perception, agency policies, procedures and protocols, agency leadership, and the judicial process.
The Role of Technology in Community Policing COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), November 2008. Community Policing Dispatch article discussing the role of technology in community policing. To access this article, please click on the COPS CP Dispatch icon/link > Click the Year and month of the article > and click on the link for the article.
The Use of Computerized Crime Mapping by Law Enforcement NCJRS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), January 1999. The Use of Computerized Crime Mapping by Law Enforcement presents the results from the nationwide Crime Mapping Survey, conducted by NIJ's Crime Mapping Research Center (CMRC). This NIJ Research Preview reveals the extent to which law enforcement agencies use geographical information systems (GIS) and why other agencies do not use GIS mapping technology. Although only 13 percent of respondents reported using any crime mapping technology, interest among law enforcement agency executives and planners appears to be growing.
Tips for Ensuring Successful Technology Implementation Fact Sheet COPS Data Sharing / Information Systems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), January 2006. This fact sheet identifies the ten critical success factors related to strategic planning of technology projects. Using these ten concepts will increase the likelihood that your technology project will be a success.
U.S. Department of Justice, Regional Crime Analysis Information System U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division / NACJD Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis     HTML U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), n.d. This website provides information about the crime analysis system called RCAGIS (Regional Crime Analysis GIS) developed by U.S. Department of Justice Criminal Division GIS Staff, in conjunction with the Baltimore County Police Department and the RCAS group. RCAGIS is an ESRI MapObjects® based system that is designed to facilitate the analysis of crime on a regional basis.
Users' Guide to Mapping Software 6th Edition COPS / Police Foundation Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, October 2004. This COPS Office/Police Foundation report provides a review of a wide range of mapping software and geographic information systems, focusing on their functionality and ease of use by members of police departments. It should be of great interest to those seeking to purchase crime mapping software.
Using Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Problem Solving COPS Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2007. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is an approach to problem solving that considers environmental conditions and the opportunities they offer for crime or other unintended and undesirable behaviors. CPTED attempts to reduce or eliminate those opportunities by using elements of the environment to (1) control access; (2) provide opportunities to see and be seen; and (3) define ownership and encourage the maintenance of territory. This guide is a resource for understanding and using crime prevention through environmental design as a problem-solving tool. The guide explains the basic principles of CPTED and outlines a process for identifying problems, evaluating the physical environment, and identifying strategies that will remove or reduce opportunities for crime.
Using Geographic Information Systems to Map Crime Victim Services OJP Crime Mapping / Crime Analysis     HTML Office of Justice Programs (OJP), February 2003. This monograph reviews the use of Geographic Information Systems, a computer application that generates maps from crime databases, and how it can help agencies understand the significance of where, when, and by whom crimes are committed.
Video Surveillance Equipment Selection and Application Guide NIJ Surveillance Video / In-Car Cameras PDF TXT   National Institute of Justice (NIJ), October 1999. This guide is meant to inform law enforcement about the types of video cameras available in order to enable them to better perform their duties. In-car cameras and video surveillance cameras are discussed in detail.
Video Surveillance of Public Places COPS Surveillance Video / In-Car Cameras PDF   HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2010. Video Surveillance provides an overview of the use of closed circuit television (CCTV) systems as a problem-oriented policing response to a crime problem. The guide explores the benefits and problems associated with CCTV and summarizes the findings of numerous CCTV evaluations.
When They Can't Talk Lives Are Lost: What Public Officials Need to Know About Interoperability NIJ Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2003. This brochure acts as a companion to Why Can’t We Talk? Working Together to Bridge the Communications Gap to Save Lives. The brochure explains some of the reasons behind interoperability, the importance of interoperability and answers general interoperability questions. (NCJ 211512)
Why Can’t We Talk, Working Together to Bridge the Communications Gap to Save Lives (Supplemental Resources) NIJ Voice Interoperability and Information Sharing PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2003. This guide provides public officials with information on planning, establishing governance structure, and technology strategies to achieve interoperability, the ability for all responding agencies to communicate on demand and in real time. This guide examines these barriers to interoperability and provides valuable information for local, regional, State, and national public officials on what needs to be done to overcome these barriers and how their involvement can assist in breaking down the barriers. The guide is designed to provide public officials with easy-to-understand information on interoperability. (NCJ 211079)