Subject Index

Title Funding Organization PDF TXT HTML Abstract
Gangs
COPS Gangs Toolkit COPS     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2007. The COPS Gangs Toolkit consists of resources for law enforcement officials, educators, and parents to address specific types of crimes committed by gangs. The resources provide details of community policing solutions to youth crime and school violence. The COPS Office encourages law enforcement agencies to analyze their local gang problems and use these resources, as appropriate.
Gang Reference Card for Parents (English) COPS PDF   HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2005. This quick and easy reference guide provides common warning signs of gang involvement. Parents are encouraged to familiarize themselves with local gangs symbols, seek help early, and consider contacting school officials, local law enforcement, faith leaders, and community organizations for additional assistance. The Gang Reference Card for Parents is available in English, Spanish, Hmong, and Vietnamese.
Gang Reference Card for Parents (Spanish) COPS PDF   HTML  
Gang Reference Card for Parents (Hmong) COPS PDF   HTML  
Gang Reference Card for Parents (Vietnamese) COPS PDF   HTML  
Graffiti COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2009. This problem-oriented guide for police addresses effective responses to the problem of graffiti – the wide range of markings, etchings, and paintings that deface public or private property. In recent decades, graffiti has become an extensive problem, spreading from the largest cities to other locales. This guide provides law enforcement with a series of questions to consider when analyzing their local graffiti problem and reviews responses to the problem based on evaluative research and police practice.
Youth Gangs in Schools OJJDP PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), August 2000. This bulletin analyzes findings from the School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey. Describes characteristics of gangs in schools and discusses contributory factors to gang prevalence in schools. Also reviews the impact on victimization of gang presence in schools. (NCJ 183015)
Law Enforcement in Schools
A Guide to Developing, Maintaining, and Succeeding With Your School Resource Officer Program COPS PDF TXT   Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2005. This guide for school resource officer (SRO) programs focuses on recruitment, screening, retaining, training, supervision, identification of funding sources, and the maintenance of funding. Promising methods used by these programs to address the aforementioned problem area are featured in this guide.
A Guide to Developing, Maintaining, and Succeeding With Your School Resource Officer Program COPS PDF TXT   Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2005. This guide for school resource officer (SRO) programs focuses on recruitment, screening, retaining, training, supervision, identification of funding sources, and the maintenance of funding. Promising methods used by these programs to address the aforementioned problem area are featured in this guide.
Case Studies of 19 School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. School Resource Officers (SRO's) are seen as a means of improving school safety and improving relations between police officers and youth.This national assessment identifies what program models have been implemented, how the programs have been implemented, and what lessons they may have for future programs. Comprehensive information is presented on 19 SRO programs which forms the basis of this case study report. For each SRO program, information is provided on program description, site location, program history-origin, budget, planning and implementation, and program coordination, recruitment, training, and turnover of School Resource Officers, program activities, program monitoring and evaluation, and community support. The comparisons review significant similarities and differences among the programs, specifically in the areas of program planning and implementation, program activities, and monitoring and evaluation.
CIS: COPS in Schools Fact Sheet COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), March 2004. This fact sheet profiles the training and program requirements for the COPS in Schools (CIS) Program, which is funded under the Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. School resource officers (SROs) work in partnership with school administrators to implement community policing strategies to prevent school violence and present educational programs designed to improve student and school safety.
Community Outreach Through Police in Schools OVC PDF   HTML Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), August 2003. This document describes the Community Outreach through Police in Schools Program. This program is a short-term, prevention-oriented, school-based group intervention that brings together police officers and children as group co-leaders to provide weekly sessions for middle school students at risk of being exposed to violence. (NCJ 197038)
Comparison of Program Activities and Lessons Learned Among 19 School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. Seven issues were considered: choosing a program model, defining specific SRO roles and responsibilities, recruiting SRO's, training and supervising SRO's, collaborating with school administrators and teachers, working with students and parents, and evaluating SRO programs. The report offers suggestions for developing a detailed SRO job description. Perhaps the single most problematic area for most programs was establishing a productive working relationship between SRO's and school administrators, largely because of different professional cultures. Support from students and parents was also essential for program success.
Integration of Law Enforcement Into School Safety: The Milwaukee Initiative NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), March 2005. The 2-year pilot initiative (September 2001 through August 2003), was designed to increase communication and collaboration across a number of organizations in planning and policy development regarding school safety, the development of tailored strategies to enhance safety at targeted schools, and the implementation of strategies to counter specific problems in and around the target schools. The evaluation involved both a process focus and a limited impact focus that used both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The evaluation concluded that it is possible to establish effective collaboration and partnerships to enhance the role of law enforcement in dealing with school safety issues. The study also showed an enhanced police presence during student transitions before and after the school day was important for school safety.
National Assessment of School Resource Officer Programs Final Project Report NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. There has been a growing interest in placing sworn police officers in schools as SRO's to improve school safety; however, when this national assessment of such programs began in May 2000, little was known about SRO programs. The national assessment of SRO programs involved a nationwide mail survey of established and relatively new SRO programs, which yielded 322 responses from law enforcement agencies with SRO programs and 108 responses from affiliated schools. A survey of nearly 1,000 students in 3 large new SRO programs identified the link between perceptions of safety and the SRO program. Keys to an effective program are applicant screening, effective training, SRO supervision, and the school staff and parents' support for the programs.
National Assessment of School Resource Officer Programs: Survey of Students in Three Large New SRO Programs NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. As part of a larger national evaluation of school resource officers (SRO's), students in three schools with SRO programs, each in a different State, were surveyed to determine their comfort in reporting crimes to the SRO and their perception of safety at school. Overall, the study indicated the importance of students having a positive opinion of the SRO as the common factor in feeling comfortable in reporting crime to the SRO and in feeling safe while at school. This finding suggests that SRO programs should focus on building a positive image of the SRO among the student body. (NCJ 209270)
National Association of School Resource Officers       HTML n.d. The National Association of School Resource Officers (N.A.S.R.O.) is a not-for-profit organization for school based law enforcement officers, school administrators, and school security/safety professionals working as partners to protect students, school faculty and staff and the schools they attend.
Role of Law Enforcement in Public School Safety: A National Survey NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2005. The report is based on findings from a national survey of schools and law enforcement agencies, this report identifies the range of roles played by law enforcement agencies and personnel in school security and the factors related to these roles. (NCJ 211676)
School Resource Officer Training Program OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2001. With the heightened perception of danger in the school environment, the school resource officer concept offers an approach to improving school security and alleviating community fears. This Fact Sheet discusses the legislative push behind the school resource officer concept, what the COPS Offices in doing to provide funding, and training and technical assistance available. (NCJ 187241)
SRO Performance Evaluation: A Guide to Getting Results COPS / Circle Solutions PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Circle Solutions, August 2005. The evaluation captures the lessons-learned from a COPS-funded, 2-year pilot project conducted by Circle Solutions, Inc. The result is a step-by-step guide to help law enforcement and school personnel use school resource officers (SRO) effectively. To better address school crime and disorder, it also provides guidance on how to match the SRO’s actual performance to their evaluations.
Toolkit for Creating Your Own Truancy Reduction Program OJJDP     HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), February 2007. This toolkit from the National Center for School Engagement provides an overview of truancy issues, its causes, and solutions to the problem. This toolkit outlines critical components of truancy programs such as family involvement, use of incentives and sanctions, developing a support network, and program evaluation. The intent and hope is that this resource tool kit serves as a map for guiding communities along the best road; the place where one of their most serious juvenile problems, such as truancy is recognized and reversed. (NCJ 217271)
Related Resources
Because Things Happen Every Day: Responding to Teenage Victims of Crime (Discussion Guide) COPS / NCVC PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), July 2005. This discussion guide and the companion 20-minute video are designed to foster a greater understanding of the impact of crime and violence on teens and the obstacles teens face in seeking help. The video features two innovative programs that have been effective in reaching and responding to teen victims.
Because Things Happen Every Day: Responding to Teenage Victims of Crime (Video) COPS / NCVC     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), July 2005. The discussion guide and the companion 20-minute video are designed to foster a greater understanding of the impact of crime and violence on teens and the obstacles teens face in seeking help. The video features two innovative programs that have been effective in reaching and responding to teen victims through the use of peer leadership, in-school support groups, one-on-one counseling, and hotlines.
Child Pornography on the Internet COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), May 2006. As the use of computers in our society has increased, so too has the issue of Internet child pornography crimes. Therefore, it is important that law enforcement agencies develop strategies for dealing with this problem. This problem-oriented guide for police describes the problem and reviews the factors that increase the risks of Internet child pornography. It then identifies a series of questions that may assist in the analysis of the problem and reviews responses based on evaluative research and police practice.
Creative Partnerships: Supporting Youth, Building Communities COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), January 2005. This COPS Innovations piece highlights community policing approaches to developing partnerships with youth. Three youth-focused programs funded by the COPS Office serve as examples of partnerships that law enforcement, schools, and community organizations can form to address issues of juvenile crime and victimization.
Dating Violence Information for Teens (Fact Sheet) NCVC PDF     National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet defines dating violence, controlling behavior, verbal and emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Provides statistics on dating violence, where to get help, how to help oneself and others. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.
High/Scope Perry Preschool Project OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), October 2000. The ongoing longitudinal study focuses on 123 black children who were of low socioeconomic status, had no biological deficiencies, and were at high risk of failing school. Results revealed that the project was effective as an educational intervention and also demonstrated other positive outcomes. These outcomes included a significantly lower rate of crime and delinquency and a lower incidence of adolescent pregnancy and welfare dependency. Program participants were nearly three times as likely to own their own homes by age 27 than were the control group members. They were also less than half as likely as the others to be receiving public assistance.
How to Help a Friend (Fact Sheet) NCVC PDF     National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet tells teenagers what they can do to help a friend who is the victim of a crime, how to recognize a victim through behavior, things to say and not say, reporting the crime, and secondary victimization. For more information, NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.
Information for Parents of Teens (Fact Sheet) NCVC PDF     National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet helps parents identify behaviors signaling that a teenager has been a victim of a crime, what to do to help, things to say and not say, options, and secondary victimization. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.
Juvenile Runaways COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), March 2006. Police encounter juveniles for many reasons related to their running away from home. This guide begins by describing the problem of juvenile runaways and reviewing its risk factors. It then identifies a series of questions to help law enforcement analyze their local juvenile runaway problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.
Mousetrap: Protecting America's Children from Online Predators VCPI     HTML Virginia Regional Community Policing Institute (VCPI), 2003. An online interactive Flash-based resource, that will help parents, educators, and other concerned adults become informed about the Internet and online predators. *Look for "Multi Media Resources" under the "Resources" tab for the 'Mousetrap' link.
Overcoming Barriers to School Reentry OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), September 2004. The Center for Alternative Sentencing and Employment Services (CASES) has developed a model for overcoming barriers to school reentry by building partnerships between the justice and education systems in New York City. This paper presents three programs developed through CASES to help court-involved youth continue their education and reenter their communities. Preliminary data from these programs show that partnerships between the justice and education systems are essential for juvenile reentry and that they must provide remedies for two critical gaps: delayed access to community schools and a shortage of appropriate schools for young people leaving custody.
Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder through Problem-Solving Partnerships COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2006. This guidebook, part of the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police series, will help communities use the SARA model (scanning, analysis, response and assessment) for building problem-solving partnerships.
Promoting Safety in Schools: International Experience and Action BJA PDF     Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), August 2001. School violence and school safety is a concern seen throughout the world. As a result of violent and tragic events occurring both in and outside the school community; policies and programs were created to protect students and prevent the occurrence of other tragedies. School safety is having plans in place to prevent crises and to deal with the ones that arise. This monograph discusses the range of approaches being developed and adapted in different countries focused on school safety. The approaches not only address aggressive and violent incidents but health-related issues. They look at and consider the roles and needs of individual pupils, teachers, support staff, administrators, school operations, families, and the community around the schools. They use a community-based approach to promote school safety.
Researching a Problem COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2005. This guide, one of the Problem-Solving Tools Series, summarizes knowledge about information gathering and analysis techniques that might assist police at any of the four main stages of a problem-oriented project: scanning, analysis, response, and assessment. This tool takes the mystery out of conducting research on problems by helping the user to define their problem, use technology to conduct Internet searches, get advice from experts, visit libraries, and evaluate their primary sources of information. The guide offers helpful hints to understanding and identifying responses to problems based on the research gathered.
Safety Tips for Children: Grades K-5 (Fact Sheet) NCVC     HTML National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet describes sexual assault in language that young children can understand, things a child should not let adults and older children do to them, how to prevent being abducted, and what to do if abducted. Also describes safety measures when alone at home and gun safety. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.
Safety Tips for Children: Sexual Assault (Fact Sheet) NCVC     HTML National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet, written in easily understandable language, presents information on what a child should know if he or she is sexually assaulted, what adults should not do to a child, how to prevent being abducted. Also covered is safety when home alone and gun safety. Another section provides child sexual abuse information for middle school students, what it is, who does it, how to stop it, and things a child should know if he or she is sexually assaulted. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.
School Crime: K - 12 NCVC     HTML National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This online resource outlines many aspects of school crime such as firearms, gangs, and school safety policies. This resource also includes references and a bibliography. *Search for Publication/Content by title.
School Vandalism and Break-Ins COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2005. The term school vandalism refers to willful or malicious damage to school grounds and buildings or furnishings and equipment. This guide describes the problem and reviews the risk factors of school vandalism and break-ins. It also reviews the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. The guide then identifies a series of questions to help law enforcement analyze their local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.
School-Based Partnerships: A Problem-Solving Strategy COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2006. The COPS Office funded the School-Based Partnerships (SBP) grant program for the purpose of partnering law enforcement agencies with schools to address crime and disorder problems in and around middle and high schools. In Fiscal Years 1998 and 1999, the COPS Office awarded 275 law enforcement agencies more than $30 million to partner with school entities to address crime and disorder in and around schools. These law enforcement agencies were required to attend training in problem-analysis and problem-solving methods, specifically the SARA Model, to better understand the causes of identified problems, apply analysis-driven responses, and evaluate their efforts. This report focuses on three SBP sites and their use of the SARA problem-solving process to address specific issues in their schools: students and teachers feeling threatened, illegal drug sales, and truancy.
Schools as Generators of Crime: Routine Activities and the Sociology of Place NCJRS / NIJ PDF     National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), September 2003. Using school settings as the location for the study, the author sought to merge social disorganization theories with opportunity theories to examine the contribution of routine activities on block-level violence. Neighborhood violent crime is explained through an examination of the risk associated with the physical space or setting of neighborhood schools, the presence of surveillance or guardianship, and the potential for motivated offenders to be present. Block-level violence was examined across all census blocks in Prince George’s County, MD. Results indicated that social disorganization and routine activities influenced block-level violent crime rates. Schools as a social milieu for violence was supported by the data. Violent crime was also higher during the morning commute time near schools characterized as disorderly; this trend was not experienced in the blocks near schools characterized as orderly. The author concludes that the data supports the integration of social disorganization theories and opportunity theories.
Teen Action Toolkit: Building a Youth-led Response to Teen Victimization COPS / NCVC PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), May 2007. The toolkit is a hands-on implementation guide for the Teen Action Partnership (TAP) for Teen Victims program. TAP for Teen Victims is a program that marshals the strengths of youth as leaders to transform their communities’ response to teenage victims of crime, while building the resilience of the youth participants at the same time. It is intended as a resource for educators, law enforcement personnel, outreach workers, victim service providers, youth workers, teens, and others who might be interested in starting a youth-led effort to improve local policies, outreach, and services for adolescent crime victims. While this toolkit can be used as a stand-alone resource, ideally its use should be accompanied by training and technical assistance from the National Center for Victims of Crime’s Teen Victim Initiative staff.
Traffic Congestion Around Schools COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2007. This problem-oriented guide for police addresses school-related traffic congestion, as defined as the overcrowding and blocking of streets on or near school property that is typically associated with car transportation of children to and from school. This guide is written for police, not because they are the biggest stakeholders in solving traffic congestion problems, but because they are often one of the first to be called when traffic congestion develops around schools. Police are more likely to be contacted only after tensions have developed among residents, school staff, and parents over responsibility for congestion. Police are in a unique position to serve as mediator between these groups, helping them to seek common ground in developing and implementing effective solutions and ultimately making their jobs easier by reducing the number of calls for service generated by congestion, and the traffic violations and traffic safety issues that often accompany it.
Unraveling the Neighborhood and School Effects on Youth Behavior NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), June 2006. The study found that although certain neighborhood structural factors did influence school organization (for example, poverty and residential stability), the social organization of schools did not imitate the social organization of the neighborhoods from which students came. One implication of this finding is that to the extent that schools influence the behavior of students, the school effects are independent of neighborhood factors. A second implication is that to produce better schools, it is not sufficient to attract "better" neighbors and rid the neighborhood of undesirable ones. Findings imply that active participation by parents and residents in the daily activities and administration of schools benefits the social organization of these schools. The study also found that one of the best ways to control student delinquency was to foster the academic engagement of students. Dropping out of school was a significant predictor of future arrest.
Using Analysis for Problem-Solving: A Guide Book for Law Enforcement COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006. This guide provides law enforcement practitioners with a resource for conducting problem analysis. It summarizes many challenges of the analysis phase of the problem-solving process. This book builds on the foundation presented in Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder Through Problem-Solving Partnerships, and complements the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Series. The guide also identifies tools for analysis and proposes tips for effectively using each tool.
Vital Partners: Mayors and Police Chiefs Working Together for America's Children and Youth COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), February 2007. The National League of Cites (NLC) and COPS have released a new report highlighting effective collaborations between mayors and law enforcement officials to protect the safety of children and youth. The report is the product of an intensive research, data collection, and outreach effort by NLC's Institute for Youth, Education, and Families, the COPS Office, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police. The report describes effective partnerships in cities of every size and region that demonstrate the importance of community oriented policing strategies, the role of data in sustaining momentum and measuring results, and the challenges of building partnerships around a shared community vision. Topics addressed in the report include prevention of gang violence, bullying, and substance abuse; creating safe places for recreation; effective neighborhood policing programs; and partnerships with diverse stakeholders.
What You Need To Know About Drug Testing in Schools ONDCP     HTML Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), July 2002. Included in the booklet are answers to questions that students, parents, school officials, and other concerned individuals might have about the drug-testing process. The booklet advises that before implementing a drug-testing program, schools should engage legal counsel familiar with the law regarding student drug testing. Although the U.S. Supreme Court has upheld a drug-testing program for students involved in competitive extracurricular activities, the ruling is not a blanket endorsement of drug testing for all students. The benefits and risks of drug testing are reviewed, and guidelines are provided for the process of determining whether a particular school system should use drug testing of students. The booklet explains drug testing, who pays for it, who does the testing, what the test indicates about an individual's drug use, and what a test does not show. Further, the booklet describes the services that should be in place for communities to deal effectively with students who test positive for drugs, and it advises that appropriate community resources must be in place before implementing a drug-testing program. Case histories are presented to show how several schools have used testing to address their drug problems.
School Safety Technology
Crime Mapping News, Volume 3 Issue 2, Spring 2001 COPS / Police Foundation PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, April 2001. The topic of this issue is GIS and school safety. The articles in this issue include a discussion of the use of GIS as a tool for responding to critical incidents at schools; a description of SchoolCOP, a free software package that allows for mapping and analysis of incidents occurring in and around schools; a brief description of MAPSS, an analytical tool that allows for spatial analysis of student pathways, hangouts, and the neighborhoods surrounding schools; an article describing a safe schools mapping initiative developed by the San Diego, California Police Department; and an annotated bibliography of articles, reports, and books relating to the topic of school safety.
Digital Imaging for Safe Schools: A Public Safety Response to Critical Incidents NIJ / IACP PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), n.d. This NIJ-sponsored resource guide, developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), presents step-by-step instructions on creating three-dimensional images on CD of school properties for use during critical incidents. (NCJ 212907)
Guide to Using School COP Software to Address Student Discipline Problems COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2001. This Guide is designed to help school administrators, police officers assigned to a school, and non-sworn school security staff reduce student discipline and crime problems using a new software application called the School Crime Operations Package, or School COP. School COP is designed to enable you to record and store detailed information about incidents involving student misconduct and crime.
Keeping an Eye on School Security: The Iris Recognition Project in New Jersey Schools NIJ PDF   HTML National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2006. The iris recognition scanner is a security system that links eye-scanning cameras with computers to identify people. This security system was adopted by three schools in New Egypt, NJ under a science and technology grant from the NIJ. The intent of the iris recognition technology is that of a security measure for schools in the United States. This article briefly describes the results of the evaluative study.
Safe Kids, Safe Schools: Evaluating the Use of Iris Recognition Technology in New Egypt, NJ NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), December 2004. In 2002, the Plumsted Township School District received Federal funding to purchase iris recognition technology in its three schools. The technology chosen identifies teachers, staff, and parents seeking entrance to schools, makes a decision about granting entry, and unlocks the doors for those allowed entry. The findings revealed some problems, such as the technology “freezing up” and issues of “tailgating,” but overall, the implementation of the system appeared to be successful and most users considered it a safe and convenient method of security. The impact findings revealed ease of use and a heightened sense of safety for parents, as well as for teachers and staff. Six general recommendations are offered for those interested in implementing their own iris recognition system.
School COP Software COPS     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), n.d. The School Crime Operations Package (School COP) is a free software application for entering, analyzing, and mapping incidents that occur in and around schools.
School COP: A Software Package for Enhancing School Safety NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2001. The project aimed to develop software that school administrators, school district security staff, and police officers assigned to schools could use to enter, analyze, and map incidents without formal training and without the need for other software.
Software Radio for School Safety NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), April 2006. Using a handheld transceiver designed with multiple waveforms in the UHF and VHF bands and an easily configured user interface as a base, this project attempted to modify the device with two way radio waveforms, both analog and digital, and mobile-side implementations of cellular waveforms with bandwidths low enough to be processed on a low power handheld TDMA and AMPS processor. Testing showed that the transceiver did not operate in the cell bands, limiting the usefulness of the device for school personnel who had hoped to use it to incorporate both civilian and public safety communication methods. Processing hardware for the device included an iPAQ consumer handheld, which was based on a StrongARM 206 MHz RISC processor. Future handheld projects should focus on the rising bandwidth of modern cell waveforms and the problem of moving data at higher sample rates between the RF transceiver and a standard consumer handheld.
Surveillance Tools for Safer Schools: Final Report NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), March 2002. Proper installation is the key to the effectiveness of a video surveillance system. The video cameras customarily used for surveillance application have low image quality, such that there is often not sufficient detail in the images to identify people and objects. This report assessed five approaches that might correct this problem.
School Violence & Violence Prevention
About Face: Turning Away from Hate Florida Regional Community Policing Institute     HTML Florida Regional Community Policing Institute, 2004. Interactive CD-ROM from the Florida RCPI focuses on the anatomy of hate crimes and how bias and prejudicial attitudes left unchecked can lead to more serious crime activity. Presents scenarios after which students can “interview” the characters in the scenes to better understand their motives and perspectives.
Aftermath: Lessons in School Safety Florida Regional Community Policing Institute     HTML Florida Regional Community Policing Institute, 1998. This CD-ROM has four interactive scenarios: alcohol, weapons, bullying, and suicide, with simulations that offer students opportunities to make choices and see the repercussions of their decisions. Strives to build problem-solving skills and provide a forum to discuss sensitive topics.
Because Things Happen Every Day: Responding to Teenage Victims of Crime (Discussion Guide) COPS / NCVC PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), July 2005. This discussion guide and the companion 20-minute video are designed to foster a greater understanding of the impact of crime and violence on teens and the obstacles teens face in seeking help. The video features two innovative programs that have been effective in reaching and responding to teen victims.
Blueprints for Violence Prevention   PDF     July 2004. This report describes the Blueprints for Violence Prevention programs, which have the common aim of preventing violence by juveniles; the lessons learned from evaluations of Blueprints program implementation; and recommendations for program designers, funders, and the agencies and organizations responsible for implementing programs. (NCJ 204274)
Bomb Threats in Schools COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2006. This guide addresses the problem of bomb threats in schools, public or private, kindergarten through 12th grade. The guide reviews the factors that increase the risk of bomb threats in schools and then identifies a series of questions that might assist law enforcement in analyzing their local problem. Finally, the guide reviews responses to the problem and what is known about these from evaluative research and police practice.
Bullying in Schools COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2009. There is always concern about school violence, and police have assumed greater responsibility for helping school officials ensure students’ safety. As pressure increases to place officers in schools, police agencies must decide how best to contribute to student safety. This guide provides police with information about the causes and extent of bullying in schools and recommendations for developing effective approaches and practices that contribute to student safety.
Center for Safe Schools & Communities       HTML n.d. Since 1988, the Center for Schools and Communities has been committed to improving outcomes for children and families through training, technical assistance, program evaluation, research and resource development. The Center's work focuses on prevention and intervention initiatives operated by schools, organizations and agencies serving children, youth and families.
Conflict Resolution for School Personnel: An Interactive School Safety Training Tool NIJ     HTML National Institute of Justice (NIJ), October 2002. This school safety training tool is an interactive CD-ROM that provides a conflict resolution curriculum for school personnel with five modules or lessons on potentially dangerous situations that include both tutorials and interactive scenarios on confronting and responding to such situations. (NCJ 194198)
Creating Safe Schools: A Comprehensive Approach OJJDP PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2001. This discussion of approaches to enhancing school safety emphasizes the need for broad-based efforts on the part of the entire community, including educators, students, parents, law enforcement agencies, businesses, and faith-based organizations and discusses 10 essential components of safe school planning. These include creating schoolwide prevention and intervention strategies, developing emergency response planning, and developing school policies and understanding legal considerations. (NCJ 188160)
Crime and Safety in America's Public Schools: Selected Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety National Center on Education Statistics PDF     National Center on Education Statistics, February 2003. This report summarizes findings from the 1999-2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The SSOCS, sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), provides a measure of the amount of crime, violence, and disorder in public schools across the Nation, as well as the practices and programs used by schools to identify and eliminate potential problems. The 2000 survey involved a nationally representative sample of 2,270 regular public elementary, middle, secondary, and combined schools in the United States. (NCJ 208535)
Crime in Schools: Reducing Conflict with Student Problem Solving NIJ PDF TXT   National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 1999. This study describes and assesses a student-based problem-solving model for reducing crime in the nation's schools. As envisioned, school-based problem-solving changes the attitudes and/or behaviors of group members and offers the skills and knowledge needed to bring about desired change. (NCJ 177618)
Effectiveness of School-Based Violence Prevention Programs for Reducing Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), May 2005. These studies were initiated for research or demonstration purposes. The programs were placed in four broad categories: universal programs, which were delivered in classroom settings to the entire classroom; selected/indicated programs, which were delivered to students selected especially to receive treatment due to some risk factors; special schools or classes that involve children with some behavioral or school difficulty; and comprehensive/multimodal programs, which involved parents and school staff as well as students and addressed school capacity-building. School violence programs were generally effective in reducing the more common types of aggressive behavior in schools, including fighting, name-calling, and intimidation; however, it remains to be determined whether such programs prevent rare, but serious school violence perpetrated by severely disturbed youth.
Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Prevention Program NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), June 2004. The results of a 5-year study of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program reveal that the program has modest positive effects on adolescent attitudes and delinquency risk factors but no effects on their involvement in gangs and actual delinquent behaviors. (NCJ 198604)
Evaluation of Bullyproofing Your School NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), January 2008. Evaluation findings for elementary schools were promising, indicating the program had the intended beneficial effects in reducing bullying and school violence in general; it also changed student attitudes toward bullying and school violence. In elementary schools where the program was implemented as intended, favorable results were achieved more quickly and were more pervasive and long-lasting. BPYS had three major components: a questionnaire that assesses the extent of bullying in the school and creates classroom expectations and rules regarding no tolerance for bullying; instruction in protective skills for dealing with bullying and assistance to potential bullying victims; and creation of a positive school climate through the promotion of a "caring majority" in the school that works to change bystander behavior during bullying incidents.
Experimental Evaluation of Gender Violence/Harassment Prevention Programs in Middle Schools NIJ / ICF International PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), ICF International, February 2008. Results show that the intervention appeared to reduce self-reported peer violence victimization and self-reported perpetration on some of the measures in these areas, though there was a conflicting finding regarding self-reported dating violence perpetration. The intervention seemed to increase self-reported dating violence perpetration for some of the measures in this area, but not self-reported dating violence victimization. The study also explored the impact of the prevention curricula on student self-reports of attitudes, knowledge, and behavioral intentions as they related to GV/H and sexual harassment.
Increasing School Safety Through Juvenile Accountability Programs OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 2000. Accountability-based programs operate most effectively when they are part of a comprehensive approach involving a wide range of partners, including students, parents, school personnel, community residents, community organizations, law enforcement and juvenile justice authorities, elected officials, and business representatives. These programs should emphasize juvenile accountability, develop an expanded and integrated network of social services, provide a seamless continuum of services to meet the needs of youth in trouble, respond to juvenile delinquency with meaningful consequences, involve law enforcement as a stakeholder in community-based efforts to prevent and respond to juvenile delinquency, and respond to problems with strategies that reflect local concerns and needs.
Indicators of School Crime & Safety, 2004 BJS PDF     Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), November 2004. Provides the most recent national indicators of school crime and safety, showing that improvements have occurred in the safety of students. This report will serve as a foundation for policymakers and practitioners so that they can develop effective programs to prevent violence and crime in schools and cope with it when it occurs. (NCJ 205290)
Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2005 BJS PDF     Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), November 2005. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, school environments, and responses to violence and crime at school.
Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007 BJS PDF     Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), December 2007. This report, produced by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics was designed to provide a brief summary of information from an array of data sources and to make data on national school crime and safety accessible to policymakers, educators, parents, and the general public. Organized into sections, the sections cover violent deaths, nonfatal student and teacher victimization, school environment, fights, weapons and illegal substances, fear and avoidance, and discipline, safety, and security measures. Each section contains a set of indicators that, taken together, aim to describe a distinct aspect of school crime and safety.
Juvenile Justice Journal, Volume VIII, Number 1 OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2001. Three feature articles: School Violence: An Overview notes that schools still face serious challenges which have to be understood so that school authorities can devise effective strategies to prevent violence and promote safety. Creating Safe Schools: A Comprehensive Approach notes that schools must understand the complexity of youth violence and the activities needed to prevent it. Conflict Resolution Education: Preparing Youth for the Future stresses that conflict resolution education can contribute to making schools safer and preparing students to participate in society. (NCJ 188159)
National School Safety Center       HTML n.d. The National School Safety Center serves as an advocate for safe, secure and peaceful schools worldwide and as a catalyst for the prevention of school crime and violence. NSSC provides school communities and their school safety partners with quality information, resources, consultation, and training services. The National School Safety Center identifies and promotes strategies, promising practices and programs that support safe schools for all students as part of the total academic mission.
NCJRS In the Spotlight: School Safety NCJRS     HTML National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), n.d. "In the Spotlight; School Safety" includes information on: Facts & Figures, Legislation, Publications, Programs, Training & Technical Assistance, and Grants & Funding.
Preventing School Shootings: A Summary of a U.S. Secret Service Safe School Initiative Report U.S. Secret Service PDF     U.S. Secret Service, March 2002. Reports from the U.S. Department of Education show that school is one of the safest places for children. However, several high-profile shootings in schools over the past decade have increased fear among students, parents, and educators. This study assessed 37 school shootings involving 41 attackers, identified the motivation behind each attach, the method used to acquire weapons, and demographic and background information about each attacker. Results of the study overturn stereotypes and suggest ways to prevent shootings and other school violence. (NCJ 190633)
Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation--Enhancing Policy and Practice Through Research, Volume 2 NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), May 2000. All three papers advise that policy grounded in research promises to be most effective if it draws on expertise in a range of disciplines. A sociologist who has written extensively on the explosive nexus of youth, violence, and firearms, first puts school violence in perspective by showing that it occurs much less often than in communities where students live, but that, on the other hand, weapons carrying by youth is not uncommon, and guns are easy to obtain. An important research finding noted is that the prime motive for youth to obtain and carry weapons is fear. Schools are taking steps to lower the risk of weapon-related incidents, but whether they are choosing techniques that have a proven record of success is not currently known. Another paper offers the insights of psychology, as the author argues that because problem behavior stems from prior maladjustment, prevention must be considered from a "developmental" perspective by analyzing what causes the problem behavior. Prevention requires understanding and changing social environments more than it involves targeting specific individuals. In the third paper, a public health psychiatrist uses his decades-long work in Chicago and Baltimore to illustrate the imperative of community involvement in designing prevention programs. The concluding section of this report outlines what the Federal Government is doing to help prevent violence in schools.
Reporting School Violence   PDF     January 2002. This Bulletin provides an overview of state laws enacted in recent years to address violence in U.S. Schools, particularly those laws concerning the collection of data and reporting of such incidents. The bulletin highlights the circumstances in which such laws are applied, emphasizing their successful implementation. (NCJ 189191)
RetroGrade: How School Crime Sets You Back Florida Regional Community Policing Institute     HTML Florida Regional Community Policing Institute, 1999. This 30-minute, MTV-style video focuses on assault and battery, theft, weapons, sexual harassment, car theft, and bomb threats. It alerts students not only to the criminal and legal aspects of the various crimes, but also to the moral and ethical issues involved. Instructors may pause the tape between each scenario to discuss the ethical decision-making conversation that began on the screen. The video engages students at an emotional level and opens the doors of communication, even to at-risk students.
Safe Harbor: A School-Based Victim Assistance/Violence Prevention Program OVC PDF     Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), January 2003. First implemented in New York City in 1991, Safe Harbor offers an innovative combination of victim assistance and violence-prevention strategies for schools to increase the safety and well being of their students and address family and community concerns. This bulletin discusses the Safe Harbor model and the replication process, as well as the training and technical assistance available to schools and communities. (NCJ 193464)
School Crisis Response Initiative OVC PDF     Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), September 2003. This bulletin describes an organizational model for school preparedness and effective responses to crises. Developed by the Yale Child Study Center’s National Center for Children Exposed to Violence, the School Crisis Response Initiative promotes specific training for school personnel and interested community members so that they may respond more effectively to the needs of children in the aftermath of a crisis. (NCJ 197832)
School Critical Incident Planning: An Internet Resource Directory NLECTC     HTML National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC), n.d. Events in recent years have shown that schools are not immune from violent critical incidents. The Internet resources gathered on this website are intended to assist law enforcement and school personnel with preparation, response, and resolution in regards to a school critical incident. *Use the search box to search for the resource by title (School Critical Incident Planning).
School Safety and Security Toolkit: A Guide for Parents, Schools, and Communities NCPC PDF     National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC), October 2003. The Be Safe and Sound campaign is a public education and awareness effort aimed at partnering parents with school administrators to reduce violence in schools; the campaign is an initiative of the National Crime Prevention Council and was launched in 2002. This handbook presents step-by-step guidance for implementing the Be Safe and Sound campaign in local schools, including procedures for assessing current school safety and security, forming an action team, identifying problems, convening a brainstorming meeting with stakeholders, developing an action plan and garnering support, and evaluating and revising the program. *Search for Publication/Content by title. (NCJ 211449)
Teen Action Toolkit: Building a Youth-led Response to Teen Victimization COPS / NCVC PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), May 2007. The toolkit is a hands-on implementation guide for the Teen Action Partnership (TAP) for Teen Victims program. TAP for Teen Victims is a program that marshals the strengths of youth as leaders to transform their communities’ response to teenage victims of crime, while building the resilience of the youth participants at the same time. It is intended as a resource for educators, law enforcement personnel, outreach workers, victim service providers, youth workers, teens, and others who might be interested in starting a youth-led effort to improve local policies, outreach, and services for adolescent crime victims. While this toolkit can be used as a stand-alone resource, ideally its use should be accompanied by training and technical assistance from the National Center for Victims of Crime’s Teen Victim Initiative staff.
Violence Against Women: Synthesis of Research for Secondary School Officials NIJ / OJJDP PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 2000. This report is intended for secondary school administrators and teachers. Dating violence is defined as various behaviors that may take place in a heterosexual dating relationship. Dating violence behaviors may be grouped into four broad categories: verbal and psychological aggression, domination and coercion, physical aggression, and sexual aggression. Rates of physical aggression tend to be highest when both threats of physical aggression and aggression expressed with objects are included in the definition. A common set of assumptions or beliefs that many maintain about the causes of or risk factors for dating violence are reviewed. An overview of existing program evaluation study results is presented.
Youth Disorder & Delinquency
Addressing School-Related Crime and Disorder COPS / Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics, September 2001. Under the COPS funded School-Based Partnerships grant program, law enforcement agencies partnered with schools to address local crime and disorder problems. Grantees utilized problem-solving techniques to better understand the causes of identified problems, apply analysis-driven responses, and evaluate their efforts.
Addressing the Problem of Juvenile Bullying (Fact Sheet) OJJDP PDF TXT   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2001. This fact sheet addresses the prevalence, nature, and effects of bullying, as well as strategies for addressing the problem. (NCJ 188500)
Bullying and Harassment Information for Teens (Fact Sheet) NCVC PDF     National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet describes bullying, what a teenager can do if he or she is a victim of bullying, statistics, how to get help, help oneself, or help someone else. Includes references to other sources of information. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.
Bullying in Schools COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2009. There is always concern about school violence, and police have assumed greater responsibility for helping school officials ensure students’ safety. As pressure increases to place officers in schools, police agencies must decide how best to contribute to student safety. This guide provides police with information about the causes and extent of bullying in schools and recommendations for developing effective approaches and practices that contribute to student safety.
Co-Occurrence of Delinquency and Other Problem Behaviors OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), November 2000. This Bulletin examines the co-occurrence or overlap of serious delinquency with drug use, problems in school and mental health problems. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency requires accurate identification of the risk factors that increase the likelihood of delinquent behavior and the protective factors that enhance positive adolescent development. The Bulletin focuses on persistent serious delinquency and persistent problem behavior occurring for 2 years or more. (NCJ 182211)
Co-Occurrence of Substance Use Behaviors in Youth OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), November 2008. The main finding is that the occurrence of one substance-use behavior made other substance-use behaviors more likely; for example, 9 percent of all youth ages 12-17 reported marijuana use, and 8 percent said they had sold drugs. Among youth who reported drinking alcohol (23 percent of all youth ages 12-17), the level of marijuana use was 32 percent, and the level of drug selling was 23 percent. Generally, the levels of reported substance use steadily increased with age. Across age groups, there was a substantial overlap of drinking alcohol, using marijuana, and selling drugs.. (NCJ 219239)
Disorderly Youth in Public Places COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2006. Disorderly youth in public places constitute one of the most common problems facing many police agencies. This problem-oriented guide for police provides a general discussion of the problem of disorderly youth in public places and reviews the factors that contribute to it. The guide also identifies questions to ask when dealing with a disorderly youth problem, proposes numerous responses to the problem, and identifies ways to measure the effectiveness of responses to the problem.
From the Courthouse to the Schoolhouse: Making Successful Transitions OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2000. A number of significant and innovative programs and strategies have been developed for helping delinquent youth re-enter the education mainstream. Foremost is the trend toward improving communication among all of the agencies and other entities involved in helping these youth develop and achieve positive goals. Communities must forge partnerships among public and private youth-serving agencies to provide a continuum of treatment and aftercare services for juvenile offenders and their families. Education services provided to juvenile offenders, both within juvenile correctional facilities and outside in the community schools, must reflect current education philosophy, curriculum content development, and instructional techniques. Instruction must be relevant to these students' interests and needs and must allow them to make connections to real-life situations. They also need job skills training to prepare them for future employment. This Bulletin includes descriptions of existing programs that provide transitional support for leaving confinement, transitional educational placements, school enrollment, mentoring, and school-based probation.
Graffiti COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2009. This problem-oriented guide for police addresses effective responses to the problem of graffiti – the wide range of markings, etchings, and paintings that deface public or private property. In recent decades, graffiti has become an extensive problem, spreading from the largest cities to other locales. This guide provides law enforcement with a series of questions to consider when analyzing their local graffiti problem and reviews responses to the problem based on evaluative research and police practice.
National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools, Final Report NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2000. This study was undertaken to develop a comprehensive account of the levels of problem behavior in United States schools and of what schools do to prevent problem behavior and promote a safe and orderly environment. (NCJ 194129)
National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools, Summary Report NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), November 2000. A summary report of the study undertaken to develop a comprehensive account of the levels of problem behavior in United States Schools and of what schools do to prevent such behavior and promote a safe, orderly environment. (NCJ 194116)
Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 2003. This Bulletin, part of OJJDP’s Child Delinquency series, focuses on four types of risk and protective factors: individual, family, peer, and school and community. The focus on risk factors that appear at a young age is the key to preventing child delinquency and its escalation into chronic criminality. (NCJ 193409)
Toward Safe and Orderly Schools--The National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools NIJ PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), November 2004. Schools are expected to provide a safe environment and to play an active role in socializing children for their participation in society. In 2000, a federally funded study was conducted to examine delinquency prevention in schools. The study surveyed principals, teachers, program implementers, and students on what the schools were actively doing, through programs, to prevent problem behavior and promote a safe and order environment. The study found that even though nearly all United States public schools were using a variety of delinquency prevention programs and disciplinary practices, most schools were using prevention practices that were either unproven or known to be ineffective. The effective implementation of prevention programs was also limited. The study examined various prevention activities utilized and the percentage of schools using them, as well as successful and unsuccessful program implementations. Ideas and suggestions were presented for the successful implementation of prevention programs which included: focusing on schools with the greatest need, starting within the school, improving training and supervision, involving school staff, the community, and experts, and using more promising practices.
Truancy Reduction: Keeping Students in School OJJDP PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), September 2001. The report describes the correlations of family, school, economic, and student factors with truancy; notes truancy’s role as a predictor of delinquency, including juvenile daytime crime; and examines the social and financial impacts of truancy. It also discusses two projects funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). These are Abolish Chronic Truancy (ACT) Now operated by the Pima County (AZ) Attorney’s Office and the Truancy Reduction Demonstration Program, a partnership with the Executive office for Weed and Seed and the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program. These programs build on the strengths and resources of local communities to target truancy from a carrot and stick perspective to provide both the incentive to attend school and meaningful consequences for chronic nonattendance. Evaluations of these programs suggest that challenges in conducting truancy reduction projects include gaining consensus regarding a uniform definition of truancy and a standardized approach to addressing it; gaining cooperation from diverse community players; and implementing effective, data-driven methods for tracking truancy and program impacts. The analysis concludes that truancy is an early warning sign for future problems and requires attention.
Underage Drinking COPS PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006. Underage drinkers experience a wide range of alcohol-related health, social, criminal justice, and academic problems. This guide identifies a series of questions that might assist law enforcement in analyzing their local problem. It also reviews responses to the problem and what is known about these from evaluative research and police practice.