Law Enforcement in Schools

A Guide to Developing, Maintaining, and Succeeding With Your School Resource Officer Program
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2005. This guide for school resource officer (SRO) programs focuses on recruitment, screening, retaining, training, supervision, identification of funding sources, and the maintenance of funding. Promising methods used by these programs to address the aforementioned problem area are featured in this guide.

A Guide to Developing, Maintaining, and Succeeding With Your School Resource Officer Program
PDF | TXT

Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2005. This guide for school resource officer (SRO) programs focuses on recruitment, screening, retaining, training, supervision, identification of funding sources, and the maintenance of funding. Promising methods used by these programs to address the aforementioned problem area are featured in this guide.

Case Studies of 19 School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. School Resource Officers (SRO's) are seen as a means of improving school safety and improving relations between police officers and youth.This national assessment identifies what program models have been implemented, how the programs have been implemented, and what lessons they may have for future programs. Comprehensive information is presented on 19 SRO programs which forms the basis of this case study report. For each SRO program, information is provided on program description, site location, program history-origin, budget, planning and implementation, and program coordination, recruitment, training, and turnover of School Resource Officers, program activities, program monitoring and evaluation, and community support. The comparisons review significant similarities and differences among the programs, specifically in the areas of program planning and implementation, program activities, and monitoring and evaluation.

CIS: COPS in Schools Fact Sheet
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), March 2004. This fact sheet profiles the training and program requirements for the COPS in Schools (CIS) Program, which is funded under the Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. School resource officers (SROs) work in partnership with school administrators to implement community policing strategies to prevent school violence and present educational programs designed to improve student and school safety.

Community Outreach Through Police in Schools
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Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), August 2003. This document describes the Community Outreach through Police in Schools Program. This program is a short-term, prevention-oriented, school-based group intervention that brings together police officers and children as group co-leaders to provide weekly sessions for middle school students at risk of being exposed to violence. (NCJ 197038)

Comparison of Program Activities and Lessons Learned Among 19 School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. Seven issues were considered: choosing a program model, defining specific SRO roles and responsibilities, recruiting SRO's, training and supervising SRO's, collaborating with school administrators and teachers, working with students and parents, and evaluating SRO programs. The report offers suggestions for developing a detailed SRO job description. Perhaps the single most problematic area for most programs was establishing a productive working relationship between SRO's and school administrators, largely because of different professional cultures. Support from students and parents was also essential for program success.

Integration of Law Enforcement Into School Safety: The Milwaukee Initiative
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), March 2005. The 2-year pilot initiative (September 2001 through August 2003), was designed to increase communication and collaboration across a number of organizations in planning and policy development regarding school safety, the development of tailored strategies to enhance safety at targeted schools, and the implementation of strategies to counter specific problems in and around the target schools. The evaluation involved both a process focus and a limited impact focus that used both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The evaluation concluded that it is possible to establish effective collaboration and partnerships to enhance the role of law enforcement in dealing with school safety issues. The study also showed an enhanced police presence during student transitions before and after the school day was important for school safety.

National Assessment of School Resource Officer Programs Final Project Report
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. There has been a growing interest in placing sworn police officers in schools as SRO's to improve school safety; however, when this national assessment of such programs began in May 2000, little was known about SRO programs. The national assessment of SRO programs involved a nationwide mail survey of established and relatively new SRO programs, which yielded 322 responses from law enforcement agencies with SRO programs and 108 responses from affiliated schools. A survey of nearly 1,000 students in 3 large new SRO programs identified the link between perceptions of safety and the SRO program. Keys to an effective program are applicant screening, effective training, SRO supervision, and the school staff and parents' support for the programs.

National Assessment of School Resource Officer Programs: Survey of Students in Three Large New SRO Programs
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. As part of a larger national evaluation of school resource officers (SRO's), students in three schools with SRO programs, each in a different State, were surveyed to determine their comfort in reporting crimes to the SRO and their perception of safety at school. Overall, the study indicated the importance of students having a positive opinion of the SRO as the common factor in feeling comfortable in reporting crime to the SRO and in feeling safe while at school. This finding suggests that SRO programs should focus on building a positive image of the SRO among the student body. (NCJ 209270)

National Association of School Resource Officers
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n.d. The National Association of School Resource Officers (N.A.S.R.O.) is a not-for-profit organization for school based law enforcement officers, school administrators, and school security/safety professionals working as partners to protect students, school faculty and staff and the schools they attend.

Role of Law Enforcement in Public School Safety: A National Survey
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2005. The report is based on findings from a national survey of schools and law enforcement agencies, this report identifies the range of roles played by law enforcement agencies and personnel in school security and the factors related to these roles. (NCJ 211676)

School Resource Officer Training Program
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2001. With the heightened perception of danger in the school environment, the school resource officer concept offers an approach to improving school security and alleviating community fears. This Fact Sheet discusses the legislative push behind the school resource officer concept, what the COPS Offices in doing to provide funding, and training and technical assistance available. (NCJ 187241)

SRO Performance Evaluation: A Guide to Getting Results
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Circle Solutions, August 2005. The evaluation captures the lessons-learned from a COPS-funded, 2-year pilot project conducted by Circle Solutions, Inc. The result is a step-by-step guide to help law enforcement and school personnel use school resource officers (SRO) effectively. To better address school crime and disorder, it also provides guidance on how to match the SRO’s actual performance to their evaluations.

Toolkit for Creating Your Own Truancy Reduction Program
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), February 2007. This toolkit from the National Center for School Engagement provides an overview of truancy issues, its causes, and solutions to the problem. This toolkit outlines critical components of truancy programs such as family involvement, use of incentives and sanctions, developing a support network, and program evaluation. The intent and hope is that this resource tool kit serves as a map for guiding communities along the best road; the place where one of their most serious juvenile problems, such as truancy is recognized and reversed. (NCJ 217271)