Related Resources

Because Things Happen Every Day: Responding to Teenage Victims of Crime (Discussion Guide)
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), July 2005. This discussion guide and the companion 20-minute video are designed to foster a greater understanding of the impact of crime and violence on teens and the obstacles teens face in seeking help. The video features two innovative programs that have been effective in reaching and responding to teen victims.

Because Things Happen Every Day: Responding to Teenage Victims of Crime (Video)
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), July 2005. The discussion guide and the companion 20-minute video are designed to foster a greater understanding of the impact of crime and violence on teens and the obstacles teens face in seeking help. The video features two innovative programs that have been effective in reaching and responding to teen victims through the use of peer leadership, in-school support groups, one-on-one counseling, and hotlines.

Child Pornography on the Internet
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), May 2006. As the use of computers in our society has increased, so too has the issue of Internet child pornography crimes. Therefore, it is important that law enforcement agencies develop strategies for dealing with this problem. This problem-oriented guide for police describes the problem and reviews the factors that increase the risks of Internet child pornography. It then identifies a series of questions that may assist in the analysis of the problem and reviews responses based on evaluative research and police practice.

Creative Partnerships: Supporting Youth, Building Communities
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), January 2005. This COPS Innovations piece highlights community policing approaches to developing partnerships with youth. Three youth-focused programs funded by the COPS Office serve as examples of partnerships that law enforcement, schools, and community organizations can form to address issues of juvenile crime and victimization.

Dating Violence Information for Teens (Fact Sheet)
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National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet defines dating violence, controlling behavior, verbal and emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Provides statistics on dating violence, where to get help, how to help oneself and others. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.

High/Scope Perry Preschool Project
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), October 2000. The ongoing longitudinal study focuses on 123 black children who were of low socioeconomic status, had no biological deficiencies, and were at high risk of failing school. Results revealed that the project was effective as an educational intervention and also demonstrated other positive outcomes. These outcomes included a significantly lower rate of crime and delinquency and a lower incidence of adolescent pregnancy and welfare dependency. Program participants were nearly three times as likely to own their own homes by age 27 than were the control group members. They were also less than half as likely as the others to be receiving public assistance.

How to Help a Friend (Fact Sheet)
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National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet tells teenagers what they can do to help a friend who is the victim of a crime, how to recognize a victim through behavior, things to say and not say, reporting the crime, and secondary victimization. For more information, NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.

Information for Parents of Teens (Fact Sheet)
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National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet helps parents identify behaviors signaling that a teenager has been a victim of a crime, what to do to help, things to say and not say, options, and secondary victimization. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.

Juvenile Runaways
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), March 2006. Police encounter juveniles for many reasons related to their running away from home. This guide begins by describing the problem of juvenile runaways and reviewing its risk factors. It then identifies a series of questions to help law enforcement analyze their local juvenile runaway problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.

Mousetrap: Protecting America's Children from Online Predators
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Virginia Regional Community Policing Institute (VCPI), 2003. An online interactive Flash-based resource, that will help parents, educators, and other concerned adults become informed about the Internet and online predators. *Look for "Multi Media Resources" under the "Resources" tab for the 'Mousetrap' link.

Overcoming Barriers to School Reentry
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), September 2004. The Center for Alternative Sentencing and Employment Services (CASES) has developed a model for overcoming barriers to school reentry by building partnerships between the justice and education systems in New York City. This paper presents three programs developed through CASES to help court-involved youth continue their education and reenter their communities. Preliminary data from these programs show that partnerships between the justice and education systems are essential for juvenile reentry and that they must provide remedies for two critical gaps: delayed access to community schools and a shortage of appropriate schools for young people leaving custody.

Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder through Problem-Solving Partnerships
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2006. This guidebook, part of the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police series, will help communities use the SARA model (scanning, analysis, response and assessment) for building problem-solving partnerships.

Promoting Safety in Schools: International Experience and Action
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Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), August 2001. School violence and school safety is a concern seen throughout the world. As a result of violent and tragic events occurring both in and outside the school community; policies and programs were created to protect students and prevent the occurrence of other tragedies. School safety is having plans in place to prevent crises and to deal with the ones that arise. This monograph discusses the range of approaches being developed and adapted in different countries focused on school safety. The approaches not only address aggressive and violent incidents but health-related issues. They look at and consider the roles and needs of individual pupils, teachers, support staff, administrators, school operations, families, and the community around the schools. They use a community-based approach to promote school safety.

Researching a Problem
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2005. This guide, one of the Problem-Solving Tools Series, summarizes knowledge about information gathering and analysis techniques that might assist police at any of the four main stages of a problem-oriented project: scanning, analysis, response, and assessment. This tool takes the mystery out of conducting research on problems by helping the user to define their problem, use technology to conduct Internet searches, get advice from experts, visit libraries, and evaluate their primary sources of information. The guide offers helpful hints to understanding and identifying responses to problems based on the research gathered.

Safety Tips for Children: Grades K-5 (Fact Sheet)
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National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet describes sexual assault in language that young children can understand, things a child should not let adults and older children do to them, how to prevent being abducted, and what to do if abducted. Also describes safety measures when alone at home and gun safety. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.

Safety Tips for Children: Sexual Assault (Fact Sheet)
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National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This Fact Sheet, written in easily understandable language, presents information on what a child should know if he or she is sexually assaulted, what adults should not do to a child, how to prevent being abducted. Also covered is safety when home alone and gun safety. Another section provides child sexual abuse information for middle school students, what it is, who does it, how to stop it, and things a child should know if he or she is sexually assaulted. For more information, visit the NCVC website at www.ncvc.org. *Search for Publication/Content by title.

School Crime: K - 12
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National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), n.d. This online resource outlines many aspects of school crime such as firearms, gangs, and school safety policies. This resource also includes references and a bibliography. *Search for Publication/Content by title.

School Vandalism and Break-Ins
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2005. The term school vandalism refers to willful or malicious damage to school grounds and buildings or furnishings and equipment. This guide describes the problem and reviews the risk factors of school vandalism and break-ins. It also reviews the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. The guide then identifies a series of questions to help law enforcement analyze their local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.

School-Based Partnerships: A Problem-Solving Strategy
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2006. The COPS Office funded the School-Based Partnerships (SBP) grant program for the purpose of partnering law enforcement agencies with schools to address crime and disorder problems in and around middle and high schools. In Fiscal Years 1998 and 1999, the COPS Office awarded 275 law enforcement agencies more than $30 million to partner with school entities to address crime and disorder in and around schools. These law enforcement agencies were required to attend training in problem-analysis and problem-solving methods, specifically the SARA Model, to better understand the causes of identified problems, apply analysis-driven responses, and evaluate their efforts. This report focuses on three SBP sites and their use of the SARA problem-solving process to address specific issues in their schools: students and teachers feeling threatened, illegal drug sales, and truancy.

Schools as Generators of Crime: Routine Activities and the Sociology of Place
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National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), September 2003. Using school settings as the location for the study, the author sought to merge social disorganization theories with opportunity theories to examine the contribution of routine activities on block-level violence. Neighborhood violent crime is explained through an examination of the risk associated with the physical space or setting of neighborhood schools, the presence of surveillance or guardianship, and the potential for motivated offenders to be present. Block-level violence was examined across all census blocks in Prince George’s County, MD. Results indicated that social disorganization and routine activities influenced block-level violent crime rates. Schools as a social milieu for violence was supported by the data. Violent crime was also higher during the morning commute time near schools characterized as disorderly; this trend was not experienced in the blocks near schools characterized as orderly. The author concludes that the data supports the integration of social disorganization theories and opportunity theories.

Teen Action Toolkit: Building a Youth-led Response to Teen Victimization
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), May 2007. The toolkit is a hands-on implementation guide for the Teen Action Partnership (TAP) for Teen Victims program. TAP for Teen Victims is a program that marshals the strengths of youth as leaders to transform their communities’ response to teenage victims of crime, while building the resilience of the youth participants at the same time. It is intended as a resource for educators, law enforcement personnel, outreach workers, victim service providers, youth workers, teens, and others who might be interested in starting a youth-led effort to improve local policies, outreach, and services for adolescent crime victims. While this toolkit can be used as a stand-alone resource, ideally its use should be accompanied by training and technical assistance from the National Center for Victims of Crime’s Teen Victim Initiative staff.

Traffic Congestion Around Schools
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2007. This problem-oriented guide for police addresses school-related traffic congestion, as defined as the overcrowding and blocking of streets on or near school property that is typically associated with car transportation of children to and from school. This guide is written for police, not because they are the biggest stakeholders in solving traffic congestion problems, but because they are often one of the first to be called when traffic congestion develops around schools. Police are more likely to be contacted only after tensions have developed among residents, school staff, and parents over responsibility for congestion. Police are in a unique position to serve as mediator between these groups, helping them to seek common ground in developing and implementing effective solutions and ultimately making their jobs easier by reducing the number of calls for service generated by congestion, and the traffic violations and traffic safety issues that often accompany it.

Unraveling the Neighborhood and School Effects on Youth Behavior
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), June 2006. The study found that although certain neighborhood structural factors did influence school organization (for example, poverty and residential stability), the social organization of schools did not imitate the social organization of the neighborhoods from which students came. One implication of this finding is that to the extent that schools influence the behavior of students, the school effects are independent of neighborhood factors. A second implication is that to produce better schools, it is not sufficient to attract "better" neighbors and rid the neighborhood of undesirable ones. Findings imply that active participation by parents and residents in the daily activities and administration of schools benefits the social organization of these schools. The study also found that one of the best ways to control student delinquency was to foster the academic engagement of students. Dropping out of school was a significant predictor of future arrest.

Using Analysis for Problem-Solving: A Guide Book for Law Enforcement
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006. This guide provides law enforcement practitioners with a resource for conducting problem analysis. It summarizes many challenges of the analysis phase of the problem-solving process. This book builds on the foundation presented in Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder Through Problem-Solving Partnerships, and complements the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Series. The guide also identifies tools for analysis and proposes tips for effectively using each tool.

Vital Partners: Mayors and Police Chiefs Working Together for America's Children and Youth
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), February 2007. The National League of Cites (NLC) and COPS have released a new report highlighting effective collaborations between mayors and law enforcement officials to protect the safety of children and youth. The report is the product of an intensive research, data collection, and outreach effort by NLC's Institute for Youth, Education, and Families, the COPS Office, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police. The report describes effective partnerships in cities of every size and region that demonstrate the importance of community oriented policing strategies, the role of data in sustaining momentum and measuring results, and the challenges of building partnerships around a shared community vision. Topics addressed in the report include prevention of gang violence, bullying, and substance abuse; creating safe places for recreation; effective neighborhood policing programs; and partnerships with diverse stakeholders.

What You Need To Know About Drug Testing in Schools
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Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), July 2002. Included in the booklet are answers to questions that students, parents, school officials, and other concerned individuals might have about the drug-testing process. The booklet advises that before implementing a drug-testing program, schools should engage legal counsel familiar with the law regarding student drug testing. Although the U.S. Supreme Court has upheld a drug-testing program for students involved in competitive extracurricular activities, the ruling is not a blanket endorsement of drug testing for all students. The benefits and risks of drug testing are reviewed, and guidelines are provided for the process of determining whether a particular school system should use drug testing of students. The booklet explains drug testing, who pays for it, who does the testing, what the test indicates about an individual's drug use, and what a test does not show. Further, the booklet describes the services that should be in place for communities to deal effectively with students who test positive for drugs, and it advises that appropriate community resources must be in place before implementing a drug-testing program. Case histories are presented to show how several schools have used testing to address their drug problems.