School Violence & Violence Prevention

About Face: Turning Away from Hate
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Florida Regional Community Policing Institute, 2004. Interactive CD-ROM from the Florida RCPI focuses on the anatomy of hate crimes and how bias and prejudicial attitudes left unchecked can lead to more serious crime activity. Presents scenarios after which students can “interview” the characters in the scenes to better understand their motives and perspectives.

Aftermath: Lessons in School Safety
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Florida Regional Community Policing Institute, 1998. This CD-ROM has four interactive scenarios: alcohol, weapons, bullying, and suicide, with simulations that offer students opportunities to make choices and see the repercussions of their decisions. Strives to build problem-solving skills and provide a forum to discuss sensitive topics.

Because Things Happen Every Day: Responding to Teenage Victims of Crime (Discussion Guide)
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), July 2005. This discussion guide and the companion 20-minute video are designed to foster a greater understanding of the impact of crime and violence on teens and the obstacles teens face in seeking help. The video features two innovative programs that have been effective in reaching and responding to teen victims.

Blueprints for Violence Prevention
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July 2004. This report describes the Blueprints for Violence Prevention programs, which have the common aim of preventing violence by juveniles; the lessons learned from evaluations of Blueprints program implementation; and recommendations for program designers, funders, and the agencies and organizations responsible for implementing programs. (NCJ 204274)

Bomb Threats in Schools
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2006. This guide addresses the problem of bomb threats in schools, public or private, kindergarten through 12th grade. The guide reviews the factors that increase the risk of bomb threats in schools and then identifies a series of questions that might assist law enforcement in analyzing their local problem. Finally, the guide reviews responses to the problem and what is known about these from evaluative research and police practice.

Bullying in Schools
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2009. There is always concern about school violence, and police have assumed greater responsibility for helping school officials ensure students’ safety. As pressure increases to place officers in schools, police agencies must decide how best to contribute to student safety. This guide provides police with information about the causes and extent of bullying in schools and recommendations for developing effective approaches and practices that contribute to student safety.

Center for Safe Schools & Communities
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n.d. Since 1988, the Center for Schools and Communities has been committed to improving outcomes for children and families through training, technical assistance, program evaluation, research and resource development. The Center's work focuses on prevention and intervention initiatives operated by schools, organizations and agencies serving children, youth and families.

Conflict Resolution for School Personnel: An Interactive School Safety Training Tool
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), October 2002. This school safety training tool is an interactive CD-ROM that provides a conflict resolution curriculum for school personnel with five modules or lessons on potentially dangerous situations that include both tutorials and interactive scenarios on confronting and responding to such situations. (NCJ 194198)

Creating Safe Schools: A Comprehensive Approach
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2001. This discussion of approaches to enhancing school safety emphasizes the need for broad-based efforts on the part of the entire community, including educators, students, parents, law enforcement agencies, businesses, and faith-based organizations and discusses 10 essential components of safe school planning. These include creating schoolwide prevention and intervention strategies, developing emergency response planning, and developing school policies and understanding legal considerations. (NCJ 188160)

Crime and Safety in America's Public Schools: Selected Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety
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National Center on Education Statistics, February 2003. This report summarizes findings from the 1999-2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The SSOCS, sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), provides a measure of the amount of crime, violence, and disorder in public schools across the Nation, as well as the practices and programs used by schools to identify and eliminate potential problems. The 2000 survey involved a nationally representative sample of 2,270 regular public elementary, middle, secondary, and combined schools in the United States. (NCJ 208535)

Crime in Schools: Reducing Conflict with Student Problem Solving
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 1999. This study describes and assesses a student-based problem-solving model for reducing crime in the nation's schools. As envisioned, school-based problem-solving changes the attitudes and/or behaviors of group members and offers the skills and knowledge needed to bring about desired change. (NCJ 177618)

Effectiveness of School-Based Violence Prevention Programs for Reducing Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), May 2005. These studies were initiated for research or demonstration purposes. The programs were placed in four broad categories: universal programs, which were delivered in classroom settings to the entire classroom; selected/indicated programs, which were delivered to students selected especially to receive treatment due to some risk factors; special schools or classes that involve children with some behavioral or school difficulty; and comprehensive/multimodal programs, which involved parents and school staff as well as students and addressed school capacity-building. School violence programs were generally effective in reducing the more common types of aggressive behavior in schools, including fighting, name-calling, and intimidation; however, it remains to be determined whether such programs prevent rare, but serious school violence perpetrated by severely disturbed youth.

Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Prevention Program
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), June 2004. The results of a 5-year study of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program reveal that the program has modest positive effects on adolescent attitudes and delinquency risk factors but no effects on their involvement in gangs and actual delinquent behaviors. (NCJ 198604)

Evaluation of Bullyproofing Your School
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), January 2008. Evaluation findings for elementary schools were promising, indicating the program had the intended beneficial effects in reducing bullying and school violence in general; it also changed student attitudes toward bullying and school violence. In elementary schools where the program was implemented as intended, favorable results were achieved more quickly and were more pervasive and long-lasting. BPYS had three major components: a questionnaire that assesses the extent of bullying in the school and creates classroom expectations and rules regarding no tolerance for bullying; instruction in protective skills for dealing with bullying and assistance to potential bullying victims; and creation of a positive school climate through the promotion of a "caring majority" in the school that works to change bystander behavior during bullying incidents.

Experimental Evaluation of Gender Violence/Harassment Prevention Programs in Middle Schools
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), ICF International, February 2008. Results show that the intervention appeared to reduce self-reported peer violence victimization and self-reported perpetration on some of the measures in these areas, though there was a conflicting finding regarding self-reported dating violence perpetration. The intervention seemed to increase self-reported dating violence perpetration for some of the measures in this area, but not self-reported dating violence victimization. The study also explored the impact of the prevention curricula on student self-reports of attitudes, knowledge, and behavioral intentions as they related to GV/H and sexual harassment.

Increasing School Safety Through Juvenile Accountability Programs
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 2000. Accountability-based programs operate most effectively when they are part of a comprehensive approach involving a wide range of partners, including students, parents, school personnel, community residents, community organizations, law enforcement and juvenile justice authorities, elected officials, and business representatives. These programs should emphasize juvenile accountability, develop an expanded and integrated network of social services, provide a seamless continuum of services to meet the needs of youth in trouble, respond to juvenile delinquency with meaningful consequences, involve law enforcement as a stakeholder in community-based efforts to prevent and respond to juvenile delinquency, and respond to problems with strategies that reflect local concerns and needs.

Indicators of School Crime & Safety, 2004
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Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), November 2004. Provides the most recent national indicators of school crime and safety, showing that improvements have occurred in the safety of students. This report will serve as a foundation for policymakers and practitioners so that they can develop effective programs to prevent violence and crime in schools and cope with it when it occurs. (NCJ 205290)

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2005
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Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), November 2005. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, school environments, and responses to violence and crime at school.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007
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Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), December 2007. This report, produced by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics was designed to provide a brief summary of information from an array of data sources and to make data on national school crime and safety accessible to policymakers, educators, parents, and the general public. Organized into sections, the sections cover violent deaths, nonfatal student and teacher victimization, school environment, fights, weapons and illegal substances, fear and avoidance, and discipline, safety, and security measures. Each section contains a set of indicators that, taken together, aim to describe a distinct aspect of school crime and safety.

Juvenile Justice Journal, Volume VIII, Number 1
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Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2001. Three feature articles: School Violence: An Overview notes that schools still face serious challenges which have to be understood so that school authorities can devise effective strategies to prevent violence and promote safety. Creating Safe Schools: A Comprehensive Approach notes that schools must understand the complexity of youth violence and the activities needed to prevent it. Conflict Resolution Education: Preparing Youth for the Future stresses that conflict resolution education can contribute to making schools safer and preparing students to participate in society. (NCJ 188159)

National School Safety Center
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n.d. The National School Safety Center serves as an advocate for safe, secure and peaceful schools worldwide and as a catalyst for the prevention of school crime and violence. NSSC provides school communities and their school safety partners with quality information, resources, consultation, and training services. The National School Safety Center identifies and promotes strategies, promising practices and programs that support safe schools for all students as part of the total academic mission.

NCJRS In the Spotlight: School Safety
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National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), n.d. "In the Spotlight; School Safety" includes information on: Facts & Figures, Legislation, Publications, Programs, Training & Technical Assistance, and Grants & Funding.

Preventing School Shootings: A Summary of a U.S. Secret Service Safe School Initiative Report
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U.S. Secret Service, March 2002. Reports from the U.S. Department of Education show that school is one of the safest places for children. However, several high-profile shootings in schools over the past decade have increased fear among students, parents, and educators. This study assessed 37 school shootings involving 41 attackers, identified the motivation behind each attach, the method used to acquire weapons, and demographic and background information about each attacker. Results of the study overturn stereotypes and suggest ways to prevent shootings and other school violence. (NCJ 190633)

Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation--Enhancing Policy and Practice Through Research, Volume 2
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), May 2000. All three papers advise that policy grounded in research promises to be most effective if it draws on expertise in a range of disciplines. A sociologist who has written extensively on the explosive nexus of youth, violence, and firearms, first puts school violence in perspective by showing that it occurs much less often than in communities where students live, but that, on the other hand, weapons carrying by youth is not uncommon, and guns are easy to obtain. An important research finding noted is that the prime motive for youth to obtain and carry weapons is fear. Schools are taking steps to lower the risk of weapon-related incidents, but whether they are choosing techniques that have a proven record of success is not currently known. Another paper offers the insights of psychology, as the author argues that because problem behavior stems from prior maladjustment, prevention must be considered from a "developmental" perspective by analyzing what causes the problem behavior. Prevention requires understanding and changing social environments more than it involves targeting specific individuals. In the third paper, a public health psychiatrist uses his decades-long work in Chicago and Baltimore to illustrate the imperative of community involvement in designing prevention programs. The concluding section of this report outlines what the Federal Government is doing to help prevent violence in schools.

Reporting School Violence
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January 2002. This Bulletin provides an overview of state laws enacted in recent years to address violence in U.S. Schools, particularly those laws concerning the collection of data and reporting of such incidents. The bulletin highlights the circumstances in which such laws are applied, emphasizing their successful implementation. (NCJ 189191)

RetroGrade: How School Crime Sets You Back
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Florida Regional Community Policing Institute, 1999. This 30-minute, MTV-style video focuses on assault and battery, theft, weapons, sexual harassment, car theft, and bomb threats. It alerts students not only to the criminal and legal aspects of the various crimes, but also to the moral and ethical issues involved. Instructors may pause the tape between each scenario to discuss the ethical decision-making conversation that began on the screen. The video engages students at an emotional level and opens the doors of communication, even to at-risk students.

Safe Harbor: A School-Based Victim Assistance/Violence Prevention Program
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Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), January 2003. First implemented in New York City in 1991, Safe Harbor offers an innovative combination of victim assistance and violence-prevention strategies for schools to increase the safety and well being of their students and address family and community concerns. This bulletin discusses the Safe Harbor model and the replication process, as well as the training and technical assistance available to schools and communities. (NCJ 193464)

School Crisis Response Initiative
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Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), September 2003. This bulletin describes an organizational model for school preparedness and effective responses to crises. Developed by the Yale Child Study Center’s National Center for Children Exposed to Violence, the School Crisis Response Initiative promotes specific training for school personnel and interested community members so that they may respond more effectively to the needs of children in the aftermath of a crisis. (NCJ 197832)

School Critical Incident Planning: An Internet Resource Directory
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National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC), n.d. Events in recent years have shown that schools are not immune from violent critical incidents. The Internet resources gathered on this website are intended to assist law enforcement and school personnel with preparation, response, and resolution in regards to a school critical incident. *Use the search box to search for the resource by title (School Critical Incident Planning).

School Safety and Security Toolkit: A Guide for Parents, Schools, and Communities
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National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC), October 2003. The Be Safe and Sound campaign is a public education and awareness effort aimed at partnering parents with school administrators to reduce violence in schools; the campaign is an initiative of the National Crime Prevention Council and was launched in 2002. This handbook presents step-by-step guidance for implementing the Be Safe and Sound campaign in local schools, including procedures for assessing current school safety and security, forming an action team, identifying problems, convening a brainstorming meeting with stakeholders, developing an action plan and garnering support, and evaluating and revising the program. *Search for Publication/Content by title. (NCJ 211449)

Teen Action Toolkit: Building a Youth-led Response to Teen Victimization
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Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), National Center for Victims of Crime (NCVC), May 2007. The toolkit is a hands-on implementation guide for the Teen Action Partnership (TAP) for Teen Victims program. TAP for Teen Victims is a program that marshals the strengths of youth as leaders to transform their communities’ response to teenage victims of crime, while building the resilience of the youth participants at the same time. It is intended as a resource for educators, law enforcement personnel, outreach workers, victim service providers, youth workers, teens, and others who might be interested in starting a youth-led effort to improve local policies, outreach, and services for adolescent crime victims. While this toolkit can be used as a stand-alone resource, ideally its use should be accompanied by training and technical assistance from the National Center for Victims of Crime’s Teen Victim Initiative staff.

Violence Against Women: Synthesis of Research for Secondary School Officials
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National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 2000. This report is intended for secondary school administrators and teachers. Dating violence is defined as various behaviors that may take place in a heterosexual dating relationship. Dating violence behaviors may be grouped into four broad categories: verbal and psychological aggression, domination and coercion, physical aggression, and sexual aggression. Rates of physical aggression tend to be highest when both threats of physical aggression and aggression expressed with objects are included in the definition. A common set of assumptions or beliefs that many maintain about the causes of or risk factors for dating violence are reviewed. An overview of existing program evaluation study results is presented.