311 Non-Emergency Call System
311 for Non-Emergencies: Helping Communities Once Call at a Time, COPS Fact Sheet
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006. This fact sheet details the COPS funding history for 311 call systems.
311 Proves a Valuable Supplement to 911 Service
Best Practices in Emergency Services, Volume 8, Number 9, September 2005. This article reports that across the U.S. "cities that have adopted 311 have said that the system has freed up call-swamped 911 centers, sharpened first response services and resulted in many other unforeseen benefits." (p.97). Three-one-one sites in Chicago, Illinois and New York City, New York are featured as well as several COPS-funded 311 sites of Austin, Texas; Baltimore, Maryland; Houston, Texas; and Orange County, Florida. Written by Penny Colston, this article appears in Best Practices in Emergency Services, a monthly newsletter geared towards emergency services such as EMS, fire and rescue, hazardous materials, and disaster management.
Building a 311 System for Non-Emergency Calls: A Case Study of the Austin Police Department
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2003. This case study documents the 311-system implementation process of Austin Police Department. This study describes the challenges the department encountered and strategies it used to set up the 311 system, and provides lessons learned for other agencies wishing to develop similar systems.
Building a 311 System for Non-Emergency Calls: A Process and Impact Evaluation
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2003. This report contains findings from a process and impact evaluation conducted on Austin Police Department's 311 system. Findings are presented on a range of performance measures, including 911 call volume, police response time, staff buy-in and training, and citizen satisfaction.
Call Management and Community Policing: A Guidebook for Law Enforcement
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2003. Using practical examples from police agencies around the country, this guidebook focuses on police call management strategies, such as 311 call systems, and their relationship to community policing.
Calling 311: Guidelines for Policymakers
National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. This report examines issues on 311 system implementation, including the impact of 311 on 911 calls, the link between 311, 911 and community policing, technology considerations, and citizen education.
Managing Calls to the Police With 911/311 Systems
National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. Implementing a 311 call system can help police better manage citizen calls and determine the appropriate response, but capitalizing on this major change in citizen reporting requires careful planning and organizational changes.
Managing Citizen Calls to the Police: An Assessment of Non-Emergency Call Systems
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2001. This report reveals the results of a COPS-funded study examining the impact of the non-emergency call systems, including 311. Case studies include Baltimore (MD), Buffalo, (NY); Dallas (TX); and Phoenix (AZ). (NCJ 199060)
Misuse and Abuse of 911
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2004. This guidebook, part of the COPS Problem Oriented Guides for Police series, addresses the various misuse and abuse problems of 911 systems and provides possible solutions for these problems.
Promising Strategies From the Field: A National Overview
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), March 2003. Eleven case studies of police agencies are presented to highlight innovative uses of COPS funding, including the Houston (TX) 311 call system initiative.